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Article

Anne van Loo

(b Liège, March 18, 1896; d 1995).

Belgian painter, designer and writer. He was a pupil of the Symbolist painter Jean Delville but started using geometric forms after discovering the work of František Kupka. In 1923 he began to collaborate on the avant-garde journal 7 Arts together with Pierre-Louis Flouquet (1900–67) and Karel Maes (1900–74). Also in 1923 he married the dancer Akarova (b 1904) who inspired his ‘Kaloprosopies’ (1925), an album of nine woodcuts, and for whom he designed costumes and stage sets. At the same time he embarked on the design of functional furniture, first in traditional materials and then in metal tubing (1930) and polychrome, cellulose-based lacquer. He opened his own decorating business in Brussels (1930–70) and showed his ‘Standax’ furniture, which could be assembled and dismantled, at the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne (1937) in Paris. Baugniet was a promoter of the ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 19 January 1913, in Ben Chicao, Algeria; died 4 November 1997, in Clermont-Ferrand.

Painter, lithographer, writer.

Symbolism.

School of Algiers.

René-Jean Clot was a painter prior to becoming a well-known writer. He spent three years studying law in Algiers before moving to Paris, where he was a pupil of Gromaire, Othon Friesz and Despiau at the Académie Scandinave. During this period, his ...

Article

Belgian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 19 January 1867, in Louvain; died 1953, in Brussels.

Painter, draughtsman, illustrator, writer. Figure compositions, figures. Murals.

Symbolism.

Jean Delville was a pupil of Portaels at the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Brussels. He began exhibiting with the group Flight...

Article

Lebanese, 20th century, male.

Active then naturalised in the USA.

Born 6 January 1883, in Bécharré; died 10 April 1931, in New York.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman, sculptor, poet. Figures, portraits.

Symbolism.

Together with his family, Khalil Gibran left the Lebanon at the age of 12, and settled in Boston, where his artistic talent brought him to the attention of well-known writers and artists. He had to return to the Lebanon in ...

Article

Julius Kaplan

(b nr Termonde, Sept 12, 1858; d Brussels, Nov 12, 1921).

Belgian painter, illustrator, sculptor, designer, photographer and writer. He was one of the foremost Symbolist artists and active supporters of avant-garde art in late 19th-century Belgium. His wealthy family lived in Bruges from 1859 to 1864, moved to Brussels in 1865, where Khnopff remained until his death, and spent their summers at a country home in Fosset, in the Ardennes. Fosset inspired numerous landscapes that owe a strong debt to Barbizon-style realism (see 1979 cat. rais., p. 210), which dominated advanced Belgian painting in the late 1870s. Khnopff abandoned law school in 1875, and, turning to literature and art, he studied with Xavier Mellery at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels. During visits to Paris (1877–80) he admired the work of Ingres and was especially attracted to the painterly art of Rubens, Rembrandt, the Venetian Renaissance and particularly Delacroix. At the Exposition Universelle of 1878 in Paris he discovered Gustave Moreau and Edward Burne-Jones, both of whom indelibly influenced his art. He studied with ...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 8 August 1874, in Lachapelle-aux-Pots; died August 1966, in Le Mans.

Painter, poet, musician.

Tristan Klingsor became known in 1895 for his poetry tinged with Symbolism and a certain humour. Previously he had tried his hand at musical composition. Despite his close friendship with Maurice Ravel, Klingsor began to move in the direction of the visual arts but without abandoning his poetry. He studied at the École du Louvre in Paris. He was in turn a landscape painter, a portraitist, and a painter of still-lifes, and proved to be a moving painter of reality. He also wrote some critical studies, notably on Chardin, Hubert-Robert and Cézanne....

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 23 February 1927, in Damelevières (Meurthe-et-Moselle).

Painter, sculptor, illustrator, draughtsman, writer. Interiors with figures, still-lifes, urban landscapes. Murals.

Symbolism.

Initially a teacher, then an advisory counsellor, Marchal moved to Paris, where he attended the Académie de la Grande-Chaumière and received guidance from Ossip Zadkine. He settled in Arras and then in Castres. He was a member of several societies and groups of the Commission Nationale d'Étude de la Pédagogie du Dessin. He was the author of a ...

Article

(b Amersfoort, March 7, 1872; d New York, Feb 1, 1944).

Dutch painter, theorist, and draughtsman. His work marks the transition at the start of the 20th century from the Hague school and Symbolism to Neo-Impressionism and Cubism. His key position within the international avant-garde is determined by works produced after 1920. He set out his theory in the periodical of Stijl, De, in a series of articles that were summarized in a separate booklet published in Paris in 1920 under the title Le Néo-plasticisme (see Neo-plasticism) by Léonce Rosenberg. The essence of Mondrian’s ideas is that painting, composed of the most fundamental aspects of line and colour, must set an example to the other arts for achieving a society in which art as such has no place but belongs instead to the total realization of ‘beauty’. The representation of the universal, dynamic pulse of life, also expressed in modern jazz and the metropolis, was Mondrian’s point of departure. Even in his lifetime he was regarded as the founder of the most ...

Article

American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 19 March 1847, in New Bedford (Massachusetts); died 28 March 1917, in Elmhurst (New York).

Painter, writer. Figures, landscapes, seascapes.

Symbolism.

Albert Pinkham Ryder was born and brought up in the whaling port made famous by Herman Melville, but came with his family to New York in 1867. He received advice from the engraver William E. Marshall, who had studied in Paris. In 1972 he enrolled at the National Academy in New York. In 1877 he was one of the founders of the Society of American Artists; in 1902 became an associate member of the National Academy and a full member in 1906. He was awarded a silver medal in Buffalo in 1901. He travelled to Europe on several occasions but gradually abandoned painting....

Article

Lithuanian, 20th century, male.

Active in Germany.

Born 11 September 1892, in Kaukehmen (now Jasnoje) or Tilsit (now Sovetsk); died 1982.

Painter, draughtsman, poet.

Symbolism.

The details of Friedrich Schröder-Sonnenstern's biography are not easy to check and are known essentially from the artist himself. He was apparently born into a large family, and his father was a postilion. He was placed in a reform school at an early age, and his various professions - circus stable boy, smuggler, healer - made for a colourful existence. More certain information is available from the periods spent in prison and psychiatric hospitals that punctuated his life....

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 28 March 1909, in Paris; died 2 July 1990, in Paris.

Painter, sculptor, poet. Figures, landscapes.

Symbolism.

Sébastien trained at the École Boulle in Paris from 1924 to 1928. He was initially interested in decoration and architecture, then photography, and taught himself to paint and sculpt. He travelled in Morocco, Yugoslavia (now Serbia and Montenegro) and Venice, as well as on French soil, in Brittany. In ...

Article

Danish, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1864; died 1937.

Painter, designer, art writer. Portraits, genre scenes.

Symbolism.

Harald was the husband of Agnes Slott-Möller. An idealist and neo-Romantic who was strongly influenced by the English Pre-Raphaelites, Harald Slott-Mötter is noted for several portraits of the Danish writer and literary critic Georg Brandes....

Article

British, 19th century, male.

Born 1828, in Aberdeen; died 1907, in London.

Painter, art writer.

Symbolism.

Pre-Raphaelite.

Frederick George Stephens entered the Royal Academy Schools in 1844 where he met John Everett Millais and William Holman Hunt. He belonged to the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood and often served as a model for the other artists' work, featuring in Millais' ...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1 August 1859, in Marseilles; died 8 October 1936, in Marseilles.

Painter, sculptor, engraver, poet. Figure compositions, figures, portraits, landscapes.

Symbolism.

François Marius Valère-Bernard was a pupil of Alexandre Cabanel at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris in 1882...

Article

Polish, 20th century, male.

Born 24 February 1885, in Warsaw; died 17 September 1939, in Jeziory (Polesia), committed suicide.

Painter, photographer, art theorist, writer. Religious subjects, portraits, genre scenes.

Symbolism, Magic Realism.

Formisci (Formist) Group.

Stanislaw Ignacy Witkiewicz, son of the painter Stanislaw Witkiewicz, played an important role in a movement that revolutionised Polish art between the wars. He was a precursor of modern theatre, an art theoretician and philosopher. His spirit and his talent developed in the intellectual setting of the 'Young Poland' movement. He travelled to St Petersburg, Munich, London and particularly France on many occasions, and also took part in an anthropological expedition to Australia organised by Bronislaw Malinowski (...