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Hilary Morgan

Concept that emphasizes the autonomous value of art and regards preoccupations with morality, utility, realism and didacticism as irrelevant or inimical to artistic quality. It was the guiding principle of the Aesthetic Movement.

In France the phrase ‘l’art pour l’art’ first appeared in print in ...


Paul Gerbod

French critic. In 1851, as a young law student, he demonstrated against the coup d’état by Louis-Napoleon. He joined a law firm but soon began to write art criticism: his review of the Paris Salon of 1857 in the journal Le Présent attracted considerable attention. He continued to write Salon criticism for the next 22 years for the ...


Therese Dolan

(b Laon, 17 Sept 1821; d Sèvres, 6 Dec 1889). French critic and writer. He made his reputation in France as one of the chief spokesmen of the Realist movement in art and as a writer of Realist literature. He authored numerous novels, short stories, pantomimes and pioneering histories of caricature, faience and popular imagery. He published scholarly works on the ...


French, 19th century, male.

Born 1798; died 1860.

Painter. Landscapes.

A pupil of Bertin, he painted panoramic landscapes in the Italian style. As a landscape theorist he had a strong influence over artists opposed to naturalism.


Marianne Marcussen

French writer and art critic. He studied briefly at the Collège Chaptal in Paris. In 1856 he became one of the driving forces behind the literary journal Réalisme, together with Jules Assézat (1832–76) and Dr Jean-Baptiste-Henri Thulié (1832–1916). Most of his art criticism dates from the 1860s and 1870s; from the outset it was particularly critical of the established art world. He frequented Parisian cafés such as the Café Guerbois and the Café de la Nouvelle Athènes, where he met the group of intellectuals around Champfleury, among them Gustave Courbet. In ...


V. S. Turchin

Russian writer and theorist of Ukrainian birth. His work began to be published in 1876. He was a supporter of realism in art and was close to the Wanderers, on whose work he wrote critical essays, mainly analysing their group exhibitions. He posed for a number of paintings by Russian artists. His story ...


Joanne Culler Paradise

French critic, writer and administrator. Although his formal education stopped short of a lycée degree, in his youth he steeped himself in the positivist, socialist and Romantic currents of the day. In the early 1880s he met his mentors: Georges Clemenceau (1841–1929), who preached evolutionary, socialist politics; and Emile Zola and Edmond de Goncourt, who inculcated in him their Naturalist literary theories. Geffroy also formed close friendships with Claude Monet, Auguste Rodin, J.-F. Raffaëlli, Félix Bracquemond and Eugène Carrière, all of whom helped to shape his aesthetic views....


Russian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1948, in Ufa, in the Urals.


Jan Krijevski became a member of the artists' union in 1975. He has set out a theory of Transrealism, which relates to the cosmic conceptions of Filonov and to the avant-garde movement in fashion in the early 1900s. From ...



Imitation or realistic representation (see Illusionism, Realism and Xenophon).

Greece, ancient, §IV, 3(i): Monumental sculpture: Ancient theory and criticism

Hamann, Johann Georg

Iconography and iconology, §III, 1(iii): Analysis of motifs, themes and types: Imitation theory

Symbol, §1: Uses and definitions of the term...


Gerald Needham

Term that has been used with many different meanings. It is predominantly applied to painting, and in its broadest sense it describes any art depicting actual, rather than religious and imaginary, subject-matter. It implies a style in which the artist tries to observe and then faithfully record the subject before him without deliberate idealization or stylization. The term has been used more specifically and (sometimes confusingly) in relation to 19th-century art, particularly French art, both as a synonym for ...


Mariantonietta Picone Petrusa

Italian painter and critic. He was taught privately by Giuseppe Bonolis but first studied law. After taking his degree, however, he enrolled in 1855 at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Naples and also attended the independent art school run by the painters Tommaso De Vivo (...


Bohemian painter, caricaturist, designer and administrator. He was the son of the liberal politician Anton Maria Pinkas and the son-in-law of the art historian Anton Springer. In 1849 he began his studies at the Academy of Fine Arts (Akademie Výtvarných Umění) in Prague, where in the previous year he had belonged to a group of students who were leaders in supporting the democratic revolution. In ...


Lucília Verdelho da Costa

Portuguese writer and critic. His literary career began in 1870 with the publication of the periodical, As farpas, on which, until 1872, he collaborated with the writer José Maria de Eça de Queirós (1845–1900), through whom he discovered the new theories of Realism and Naturalism. According to Ramalho Ortigão, art should try to reproduce, with feeling, the truth presented in nature. Eventually, however, he rejected the more radical ideas of Courbet and Zola and espoused a sincere love only for the Naturalism of the Barbizon school. This latter form was introduced into Portugal by António Silva Porto, whose aesthetic programme was associated with Ramalho Ortigão’s work, and both were linked with the ...


Jeremy Howard

Latvian painter, graphic designer, writer, critic and teacher. He was the son of a country blacksmith and at the age of sixteen moved to Riga, where he spent four years as a painter and decorator. He then worked as an extra in the Riga Latvian Society Theatre and briefly attended drawing classes at the German Trade School before entering the St Petersburg Academy of Arts in ...


Jean-Pierre Leduc-Adine

French writer and critic . He was brought up in Aix-en-Provence, and arrived in Paris in 1858, where he frequented painters’ studios and visited the salons. Cézanne was a childhood friend to whom Zola dedicated his first article of art criticism, which appeared in L’Evénement in ...