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Chilean, 20th century, male.

Born 1927, in Paris.

Painter.

Barreda Fabres studied architecture at the Catholic university in Santiago and taught history of art in the architecture faculty from 1950 to 1955. He used a realist technique to paint constructions that belong to the world of the uncanny and the surreal. He took part in exhibitions in North America, Latin America and Europe and received many awards....

Article

Cynthia Lawrence

(b Mechelen, March 18, 1661; dMechelen, c. 1720).

Flemish sculptor and architect. He was a pupil of Lucas Faydherbe, from whom he learnt the picturesque realism associated with Rubens’s workshop. He collaborated with the Mechelen sculptor Jan van der Steen in London before returning to Flanders and joining the Mechelen guild. Langhemans is best represented in Belgium by the works he executed for the church of St Rombout in Mechelen. The earliest is a naturalistic stone statue of St Libertus (1680) for the monument to Amati de Coriache; a dramatically gesticulating stone figure of St Mary Magdalene from the monument to Jan Baptiste and Bernard Alexander van der Zype (1701) exhibits similar tendencies. Conversely, the oak statue of the Virgin of Victory (1680), carved for the monastery of the Brothers of Charity at Kappelen, Antwerp, has a classicizing appearance, which became more pronounced in his work by c. 1700. In 1698–9 Langhemans collaborated with ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1928, in California.

Painter.

Gerhardt Liebmann exhibited in Geneva in 1975.

He trained as an architect and is also a painter, a realist in the American tradition which came back into favour with the 1970s success of hyperrealism. His work is almost photographic in effect....

Article

Italian, 15th – 16th century, male.

Born 1469, in Montelupo, near Florence; died c. 1535, in Lucca.

Sculptor, architect.

Florentine School.

The father of Raffaele da Montelupo, Baccio da Montelupo's early work is rooted in Quattrocento naturalism; later he became one of the most eminent representatives of the Renaissance, creating a new style of crucifix. His works are to be found in the churches of Arezzo, Bologna and Venice, and the Jacquemart-André Museum in Paris has a ...

Article

Evita Arapoglou and Tonia P. Giannoudaki

(b Tinos, 1834; d Athens, Nov 28, 1919).

Greek sculptor. While very young he assisted his architect father in the construction of the St Paul Monastery on Mt Athos, and he also collaborated with masons from Tinos on sculptural work in Constantinople (now Istanbul). In 1858 he began his studies in sculpture at the School of Fine Arts in Athens, first under Christian Heinrich Siegel (1808–83) and then under Georgios Fitalis, and continued them at the Accademia di S Luca in Rome (1864–9) with a scholarship from the Evangelistria Holy Foundation of Tinos. His Reaper (1870; Athens, Zappeion), which won first prize at the Academy of Rome, is an early example of a series of small decorative genre sculptures involving children. Often inspired by themes from everyday life, he was the first Greek sculptor who produced works with Realist tendencies. Man Breaking Wood (model 1871, marble 1900; Athens, Zappeion), for example, shows a dynamic architectural structure and almost exaggerated anatomical detail. His naturalistic statues and busts (e.g. ...

Article

(Mikhaylovich)

(b St Petersburg, 1906; d Moscow, 1965).

Soviet architect. He was one of the most prolific architects working in the monumental style of Socialist Realism promoted by Joseph Stalin. He studied at the Leningrad Art-Technical Institute under Ivan Fomin, and he then assisted Vladimir Shchuko in his competition entry (1933) for the Palace of the Soviets, Moscow, a fantastic confection in a neo-Byzantine style. His own work at the time was more restrained; for example, a block of flats (1933–5), 45 Arbat, Moscow, was severely rectilinear, having a two-storey base of engaged columns with shops behind, and four storeys of flats in rusticated stone. Polyakov’s main gate for the All-Union Agricultural Exhibition (1939), Moscow (later Exhibition of Economic Achievement of the USSR), is a highly abstract monumental arch in a stripped classical manner and with heroic reliefs, reminiscent of Shchuko’s Lenin Library (1928), Moscow. The current main gate (...

Article

Radomíra Sedláková

(b Prague, Aug 24, 1923; d 2001).

Czech architect. He graduated in architecture from the Czech Technical University, Prague, in 1949, beginning his career during the period of Socialist Realism. He then began to use new materials and structural elements; for example, his Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry (1963), Prague, introduced a light curtain wall and a typical plan (low and wide entrance hall, with conference rooms, halls and restaurant, and high-rise office building) that was subsequently widely adopted by architects in Czechoslovakia. Other examples of his innovative structural designs include the use of Vierendeel bridge trusses in his extension (1966–71) to the Federal Assembly building in Prague and the use of a heavy glass wall for acoustic purposes in the new auditorium (1983; with Stanislav Libenský) at the National Theatre in Prague. In 1990–92 he designed the reconstruction of the House of Artists in Prague, and in 1993–4 he designed the reconstruction of the Cubist House at Black Madonna in Prague....

Article

Rococo  

Richard John and Ludwig Tavernier

A decorative style of the early to mid-18th century, primarily influencing the ornamental arts in Europe, especially in France, southern Germany and Austria. The character of its formal idiom is marked by asymmetry and naturalism, displaying in particular a fascination with shell-like and watery forms. Further information on the Rococo can be found in this dictionary within the survey articles on the relevant countries.

Richard John

The nature and limits of the Rococo have been the subject of controversy for over a century, and the debate shows little sign of resolution. As recently as 1966, entries in two major reference works, the Penguin Dictionary of Architecture and the Enciclopedia universale dell’arte (EWA), were in complete contradiction, one altogether denying its status as a style, the other claiming that it ‘is not a mere ornamental style, but a style capable of suffusing all spheres of art’. The term Rococo seems to have been first used in the closing years of the 18th century, although it was not acknowledged by the ...

Article

B. M. Kirikov, S. G. Fyodorov and Jeremy Howard

Russian family of artists. The architect (1) Vasily Stasov was an eminent exponent of Neo-classicism. His son (2) Vladimir Stasov became a leading critic with democratic views and a champion of Realism in art.

(b Moscow, Aug 4, 1769; d St Petersburg, Sept 5, 1848).

Architect. One of the last great masters of the St Petersburg Neo-classical school along with Karl Rossi and Auguste Ricard Montferrand (1786–1858), he continued and perfected the traditions of Neo-classical monumentality and plasticity earlier developed by Ivan Starov (1745–1808), Andreyan Zakharov and Thomas-Jean de Thomon. Stasov’s buildings were characterized by strength and austerity, geometrical qualities and striking contrasts between the smoothness of the walls and the spatial, decisive quality of the order. As a rule he modified the forms of the most austere and monumental of the Classical orders: the Greek Doric. In striving for an original interpretation of traditional methods, he examined local urban planning and the natural landscape. Stasov mastered a wide range of styles; he designed both domestic buildings and ceremonial palace interiors, created large-scale buildings and introduced new metal constructions....

Article

(Stepanovich)

(b Simferopol’, May 6, 1858; d Moscow, Oct 5, 1923).

Russian painter of Ukrainian birth. He qualified as a surveyor, but in 1880 he entered the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, studying under Illarion Pryanishnikov and Yevgraff S. Sorokin (1821–92). There he became close friends with Sergey Ivanov, Sergey Korovin, Konstantin Korovin, Mikhail Nesterov and, in particular, Isaak Levitan, and he shared their enthusiasm for Realism. Stepanov began by painting small genre scenes in the style of Pryanishnikov, through whom he became interested in the hunt. He progressed from hunting scenes, which had special significance for him, to animal painting, and he became a leader in the genre. He joined the Wanderers in 1891, exhibiting with them from 1888 to 1900. His most successful works from these years are Elks (1889) and Cranes Flying (1891; both Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.). These show features typical of the groups with which he was associated, including an emphasis on landscape in genre painting, a lyrical mood and work ...

Article

B. M. Kirikov and S. G. Fyodorov

In 

Article

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1933, in Montbéliard.

Sculptor.

Antoine Zuber studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. After Realist beginnings, Zuber evolved towards architectural Abstraction. He progressed from working in metal or in modern industrial materials, to signs, mobiles and floating sculptures. In ...