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Article

German, 19th century, male.

Born 1789, in Leipzig; died 1869, in Dresden.

Painter, watercolourist. Landscapes.

Carus was a true Romantic - a doctor, professor of gynaecology, botanist, writer and aesthetic theorist. He illustrated his theories himself, and was one of the most important representatives of the school of German Romantic landscape painting. He became an honorary member of the academy of fine art in Dresden. Unfortunately, many of his most representative works (along with several works by other painters of the movement) were destroyed in the fire at the ...

Article

French painter, designer and interior decorator. Throughout his career he was an advocate of the importance of art and design for industry and manufacture. In 1830 he was appointed adviser to the Sèvres Porcelain Factory by the director Alexandre Brongniart (1770–1847). There Chenavard made cartoons for stained-glass windows, a stoneware ‘Vase de la Renaissance’ shown at the ...

Article

A. Ziffer

German designer, painter, teacher and theorist. A self-taught artist, he made several study trips to Italy and the Tyrol. In painting he found inspiration in late German Romanticism, before turning to the English Arts and Crafts Movement. His designs were exhibited in 1899 at the exhibition of the Bayerische Kunstgewerbeverein (Munich, Glaspal.) and in ...

Article

Arthur Channing Downs

American writer, horticulturist, landscape gardener and architect. From the age of seven he was trained in the family nursery garden by his elder brother Charles Downing (1802–85), an experimental horticulturist. Before he was 15, Downing came under the influence of André Parmentier (...

Article

German writer, statesman, scientist, historian and theorist. By virtue of his prodigious literary output, his writings on art (notably in collaboration with Friedrich Schiller), his patronage as chief minister of Weimar, the extraordinary variety of his interests, and his sheer longevity, he had a profound influence on European culture....

Article

Howard Caygill

German theorist. He was the most consistent and influential critic of German Enlightenment philosophy and aesthetic theory. His impeccable Enlightenment pedigree as a student of Kant at the University of Königsberg in the early 1760s and his acquaintance with Diderot and Jean le Rond d’Alembert during his visit to Paris in ...

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Therese Dolan

French art critic and journalist. His career began in 1818 with a pamphlet, Mes visites au Musée Royal du Luxembourg (Paris, 1818), in which he divided the history of painting in France into three ages: the golden age of Poussin and Claude, the period of decadence of Boucher and Carle Vanloo, and the era of revival of Joseph-Marie Vien and David. His most significant contributions to art criticism were his works on the Paris Salons, written between ...

Article

David Rodgers

English writer, connoisseur and collector (see fig.). He was the son of a clergyman from a wealthy dynasty of iron-masters. His father died in 1764, and shortly afterwards he inherited a considerable estate from his uncle, which ensured his financial independence. He was a sickly child and was educated at home, becoming well versed in Classical history, Latin and Greek. In ...

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French writer and critic. He was a pioneer of literary romanticism and an influential literary figure, whose paid work as a government official allowed him to produce novels, verse and essays. He also wrote art criticism, and the Salon of 1817 prompted no less than seven articles to ...

Article

Pontus Grate

French critic. In 1831 the originality, perspicacity and learning of his first Salon review secured him a leading position in French art criticism that he retained until his death. The first French writer to devote himself exclusively to art criticism, Planche set out to establish a conscientious and severe critical method. Initially this allowed him to reject the new prolific ...

Article

Martin Postle

English landowner and writer. He was one of the leading promoters of the Picturesque, a quasi-aesthetic theory concerning the codification of types of landscape; this enjoyed a brief popularity in England at the end of the 18th century. In 1794 Price published An Essay on the Picturesque...

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Jörg Traeger

German painter, draughtsman and theorist. He stands alongside Caspar David Friedrich as a leading figure in German Romantic painting even though his early death restricted his oeuvre to relatively few stages of development. The enduring prominence of philosophical and theoretical concerns suggests that further work would have contributed to the history of ideas as well as to that of art. Runge’s greatest influence was on later, largely ...

Article

French philosopher, critic, historian and teacher. After a brilliant school career and several years teaching in the provinces, he established his reputation as a literary critic with Essai sur les fables de La Fontaine (1853). In 1864 he published his Histoire de la littérature anglaise...

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Robert E. McVaugh

German writer. He was trained in law but devoted most of his time to music, poetry and the visual arts. In these pursuits he received guidance and support from Karl Philipp Moritz, Johann Friedrich Reichardt (1752–1814), Erduin Julius Koch (1764–1834) and, above all, ...