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French, 19th century, male.

Born 20 April 1807, in Ceva (Piedmont), to a French father and an Italian mother; died 29 April 1841, in Paris.


Louis, called Aloysius, was a Romantic poet, journalist, short-story writer and playwright. He spent his childhood in Dijon, where he was fascinated by the medieval churches and houses that still survived in this former capital of the Duchy of Burgundy; he was also enthusiastic about the engravings of Jacques Callot and the tales of Hoffmann. After various unsuccessful attempts at journalism, he went to Paris and struck up friendships with Sainte-Beuve, Victor Pavie and, above all, David d'Angers. He also knew the great Romantic writers such as Victor Hugo. His friends encouraged him to publish his prose poems, inspired by the Middle Ages and Dijon, that he entitled ...


Richard Green

(b York, March 10, 1787; d York, Nov 13, 1849).

English painter. Born into a Methodist family, he was the seventh child of a miller and baker in Feasegate, York, and in 1798 he was apprenticed as a printer to Robert Peck, publisher of the Hull Packet. Financial support from his uncle, a banker, allowed him to go to London in 1805, where he entered the Royal Academy Schools in 1806. For a year, in 1807–8, he was a pupil of Thomas Lawrence, who greatly influenced him. Following the death of his uncle in 1809 he became financially secure. From 1811 he exhibited regularly at the Royal Academy and the British Institution and in 1816 worked in the studio of Jean-Baptiste Regnault in Paris.

At the Royal Academy in 1820 Etty exhibited his first substantial figure composition, the Coral Finders: Venus and her Youthful Satellites Arriving at the Isle of Paphos (London, priv. col., see Farr, pl. 12). He visited France, Italy and the Low Countries and, in ...


Marianne Grivel

(b Paris, 1561; d Paris, c. 1635).

French engraver, draughtsman, print publisher and dealer. He was the son of the goldsmith Pierre Gaultier, but probably not, as has been stated, the son-in-law of Antoine Caron and brother-in-law of Thomas de Leu. His first dated engravings (1576; Linzeler, 13–120) form part of a suite of 108 plates illustrating the New Testament. He was a very prolific engraver—his output reached at least 985 prints—and treated various genres, producing religious engravings, allegories, coats of arms and above all portraits and book illustrations. Although he copied the suite of engravings by Agostino dei Musi and B. Daddi after Raphael’s fresco cycle the Loves of Cupid and Psyche in the Farnesina, Rome (l 163–95), most of his work was from his own drawings. His work was published by a number of print publishers: Pierre Gourdelle (fl 1555–88) and, in 1591, by his wife (e.g. the Salvator Mundi, l...


French, 19th century, male.

Active in Paris at the beginning of the 19th century.

Lithographer, printer.

François Le Villain exhibited at the Salon from 1819 to 1822. His printing works was frequented by the most famous lithographers of the Romantic School, and rivalled the printing works of Engelmann....


James Stevens Curl

(b Cambuslang, Lanark [now Strathclyde], April 8, 1783; d London, December 14, 1843).

Scottish garden designer and writer. The son of a farmer, he was first apprenticed to a nurseryman and landscape gardener, moving to London in 1803 to set himself up as a garden designer. That year he published his ‘Hints…[on] Laying Out the Grounds of the Public Squares in London’ in the Literary Journal (ii/12, 31 Dec 1803, cols 739–42), advocating a judicious mixture of deciduous and evergreen plants. He also carried out work for the Duchess of Brunswick at Brunswick House, Blackheath, London, and the following year spent some time in his native Scotland, improving the estates of several aristocratic clients. The same year he exhibited three drawings at the Royal Academy and published his first book, Observations on…Ornamental Plantations. In it he emphasized his adherence to Picturesque principles and those of Uvedale Price in particular. From this time on, and in addition to several forays into architectural design, Loudon’s career as a garden designer was inseparable from his vast publishing enterprises, by which he disseminated his advice and ideas....


German, 19th century, male.

Born 16 June 1868, in Sievering, near Vienna; died 11 May 1909, in Munich.

Draughtsman, illustrator.

Reznicek started working for the journal Simplissimus in 1896, becoming its specialist in romantic, even risqué, drawings. He also collaborated on the journal Jugend. In Munich, he published an album, ...