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Article

Valerie A. Clack

(Thomas)

(b London, Aug 25, 1817; d Sydney, Feb 9, 1883).

Australian architect, of English birth. He was the son of James Blacket, a London cloth merchant, and he initially worked in his father’s office and in a linen mill in Yorkshire before becoming a surveyor for the Stockton and Darlington Railway, where he must have obtained a knowledge of building. Blacket also sketched and measured old buildings in his spare time. In 1842 he moved to Sydney, where he obtained an appointment as a ‘valuator’ and perhaps also as an inspector of buildings. He received his first architectural commission in 1843 (All Saints, Singleton; destr.) and went on to become one of the leading architects in New South Wales in the mid-19th century. Appointed Diocesan Architect by 1847, he is known particularly for his Gothic Revival churches, mostly traditional in manner, of which he designed more than 50. Among them are simple country churches (e.g. at Berrima, Picton, Greendale and Wollombi); elegant city buildings (e.g. at Sydney: St Philip’s, ...

Article

David Dolan

Australian architectural partnership formed by the brothers Michael Francis Cavanagh (1860–1941) and James Charles Cavanagh (1871–1957) in 1895. Their father, John Cavangh, was an Irish-born contractor, who became Supervisor of Public Buildings for the South Australian Government. Michael Cavanagh was born at Yackandandah, Victoria and educated at nearby Beechworth. He continued his educationn in London and then Adelaide, where he worked with E. J. Woods (1837–1913). James was born in Adelaide and became articled to Michael while studying there, continuing his studies informally in Europe. Michael, who was the senior partner with higher public profile, remained permanently in Perth after 1895, while James worked in Brisbane between 1933–42, before retiring to Adelaide.

They designed ornate turreted hotels and many Federation style houses, but specialized in Roman Catholic churches and schools. Their large institutional buildings, such as Clontarf Orphanage (1900), Subiaco, all have façades with deep verandahs above rusticated flat or rounded arches. Except for some unusual, late Art Deco designs in partnership with others, their work is consistently eclectic, derivative and conventional....

Article

J. N. Mané-Wheoki

(b Norfolk Plains, Tasmania, Nov 17, 1823; d Dunedin, Aug 23, 1877).

Australian architect, also active in New Zealand. Arriving in England in 1840, he trained in architecture and engineering before returning to Tasmania in 1848. He worked in the Government Survey Office (1851–5) and then set up in private practice in Launceston. A member of the Royal Victorian Institute of Architects, Melbourne, Clayton is credited with having erected some 300 structures in Tasmania, including five churches, three banks, a Mechanics’ Institute, a theatre, three mills, breweries, mansions, villas and five bridges. St Andrew’s, Launceston (1849), St Mark’s, Deloraine (1856–60), and Chalmers Church, Launceston (1859–60), are notable examples of his religious architecture; the Public Offices, Launceston (1859–60)—built of brick with richly modelled freestone dressings and Italianate classical in style—are the most ambitious and lavish of his secular works.

In 1863 Clayton moved to Dunedin, New Zealand, where he entered into partnership with ...

Article

John W. F. Cattell

(b Walsden, Lancs, Jan 7, 1856; d Wellington, New Zealand, Aug 13, 1952).

New Zealand architect of English birth. The son of a Church of England clergyman, he worked for the church architects Edmund Evan Scott (fl 1851; d 1895) in Brighton and Robert Jewell Withers (1823–94) in London before emigrating to New Zealand, settling in Wanganui in 1877. He moved to Wellington in 1883 and was appointed architect to the Wellington Diocese of the Anglican Church. According to his obituary he designed more than 100 churches mostly in the southern half of the North Island.

Clere continued the tradition of wooden Gothic Revival churches clad with vertical boarding established by Frederick Thatcher and Benjamin Woolfield Mountfort; his buildings are successful more for their simplicity of design and fine proportioning than for their ecclesiological correctness. Working in a seismically unstable country, he was mindful of the necessity for structural strength in his buildings and experimented with the use of reinforced concrete for larger churches, such as St Matthew’s Anglican Church, Hastings (begun ...

Article

George Tibbits

(William)

(b London, 1796; d Sydney, March 9, 1879).

Australian architect of English birth. His early experience was in London as a military surveyor and draughtsman in government service and then in private practice. He arrived in Sydney in March 1840 as an assistant surveyor in the office of the Surveyor-General of New South Wales, Thomas L. Mitchell. Under Mitchell he was appointed town surveyor in Sydney, becoming Colonial Architect of New South Wales in 1835. He is particularly admired for his designs for government buildings in the Greek Revival idiom, of which one is extant, though extended, the Darlinghurst Court House (1837). Another surviving government building is the Maitland Gaol (1847–50), New South Wales. As Colonial Architect he is credited as the chief designer of government buildings, although evidence suggests that capable subordinate clerks of works such as James Rattenbury (fl 1839–45) and Henry Ginn (fl 1846–51) also had that duty for projects remote from Sydney. Other surviving designs attributed to Lewis are the Berrima Court House and the Hartley Court House, both in rural New South Wales. He also supervised the construction of the Tudor Gothic Government House in Sydney (begun ...

Article

Ian J. Lochhead

(b Wolverhampton, March 13, 1825; d Christchurch, March 15, 1898).

New Zealand architect of English birth. The pre-eminent Gothic Revival architect of 19th-century New Zealand, he was articled to R. C. Carpenter in 1844. From Carpenter he gained a sound knowledge of Gothic design and an understanding of ecclesiological principles, to which he adhered throughout his career. By 1848 he was practising in London. A devout Anglo-Catholic, Mountfort emigrated in 1850 to Canterbury, South Island, New Zealand, a colony promoted by the Church of England. He practised in Christchurch for the rest of his career. Mountfort’s first major commission, Holy Trinity (1852; destr. 1857), Lyttelton, was an over-ambitious, timber-framed church, which quickly deteriorated through the shrinkage of unseasoned timber. Despite this setback, he continued to design churches for the predominantly Anglican colonists, including St Bartholomew’s (1855), Kaiapoi, and St Mary’s (1863), Halswell. St Mary’s, a small, ecclesiologically correct parish church, Early English in style, picturesque in composition, with a timber frame and vertical board-and-batten sidings, became the model for Mountfort’s subsequent wooden churches. Although derived from Carpenter’s design for a timber church in the Ecclesiological Society’s ...

Article

John Maidment

(b Huddersfield, Oct 2, 1858; d Rowella, Tasmania, May 28, 1945).

Australian architect of English birth. He studied at the Kendal School of Art, Cumberland, and the Lambeth School of Art, London; he was articled in Kendal and he worked for the church architect James Cubitt, whose writings influenced him. He travelled widely in Europe, and in a national competition (1883) for art schools he won the gold medal for his cathedral drawings. In 1883 he emigrated to Tasmania and first worked for the Tasmanian Government in Hobart; he was later in partnership in Launceston successively with L. G. Corrie, W. H. Dunning, A. H. Masters, R. F. Ricards, F. J. Heyward and, in Melbourne, with Louis R. Williams from 1913 to 1920. North’s early work shows the influence of R. Norman Shaw and William Burges in the adoption of massive forms, Queen Anne style and French detailing; the Anglo-Dutch idiom of the Launceston Post Office (c. 1885–9...

Article

Miles Lewis

(b Launceston, Tasmania, 1845; d Melbourne, Nov 25, 1917).

Australian architect. He served articles with the Tasmanian architect Henry Hunter, then undertook unspecified studies in London and worked for Matthew Digby Wyatt, before returning to Australia in 1868. He established a practice in Ballarat, where he was appointed Borough Architect in 1870. He won a competition for the design of the Congregational Church in Victoria Parade, Melbourne (1871–2; destr.), and then designed the Wesleyan Church in Brunswick (1872). It was the first important example of his High Victorian polychrome style characterized by the brown brickwork with dressings and patterns of cream and warm red, serrated around the heads of openings. In common with his work in stone, it used paired and multiple Gothic lights, decorated tracery, stone corbels to widen the bases of gables in porches and bellcotes, heavily moulded arches carried on slim shafts, octagonal towers and spires, and pierced quatrefoil parapets.

Having moved to Melbourne, Oakden entered into partnership with ...

Article

Ian J. Lochhead

(b Lower Hutt, Sept 26, 1847; d Dunedin, Dec 10, 1918).

New Zealand architect. He was educated at Roman Catholic schools in England and France and was articled (1864–9) to the shipbuilder and engineer Joseph Samuda (1813–85) in London, after which he worked for Daniel Cubitt Nichols (fl 1856–91). In 1872 he returned to New Zealand as an engineer on railway construction, establishing his own practice in Dunedin in 1875. He carried out a wide range of commercial, domestic and engineering works, but his major architectural commissions came from the Roman Catholic Church. His first important work was the Dominican Priory (1877), Dunedin. Its simplified, angular Gothic forms reveal its monolithic concrete construction. More conventional in form, St Joseph’s Cathedral (begun 1879), Dunedin, is French 13th-century Gothic in style. Petre employed the Gothic style for small parish churches but increasingly favoured classical basilican plans for larger churches. The basilica of the Sacred Heart (...

Article

George Tibbits

(b Melbourne, June 4, 1855; d Melbourne, May 25, 1918).

Australian architect and politician. He began his architectural practice in 1879, having served articles from 1875 with George Browne in Melbourne. His early success came from competitions for commercial buildings in prestigious locations. A well-known design from this early period is Gordon House (1883), Little Bourke Street, Melbourne, created for the Improved Dwellings and Lodging House Company. His interest in theatre, matched with his skill in design, also drew important commissions of which the most notable surviving example is the decorative French Second Empire style Princess Theatre (1886), Melbourne. In the later 1880s his practice flourished, during which time Pitt created a collection of striking Gothic Revival office buildings in Melbourne: Stock Exchange (1888), Collins Street; Coin Exchange (1889), Queens Street; Olderfleet (1889), Collins Street; Rialto (1890–91), Collins Street. As a testament to his inventive skill as a designer, his Federal Coffee Palace (...

Article

Miles Lewis

(b Scarborough, Yorks [now N. Yorks], 1825; d Melbourne, June 23, 1884).

Australian architect of English birth. He emigrated to Melbourne in 1853 and worked with the architect Charles Laing (d 1857). By 1856 he had his own practice, but on Laing’s death he took over his role and clientele, notably some of the major banks and the Church of England, of which he became Diocesan Architect (1860). His first commercial buildings were Sands & Kenny’s printing house (1856; remodelled by Terry, 1868), the Victoria Sugar Company Works at Sandridge, Port Melbourne (1857–9), and various handsome bluestone warehouses (c. 1857–8). For the warehouses especially he favoured a Renaissance Palazzo style, but by setting off the dark local stone against light cement dressings he created a distinctive effect. In his Melbourne Club (1858) he used the Palazzo style austerely but on a grand scale, with equally pretentious interior spaces; the later addition of a bay-windowed extension distorts the simple façade, and the scagliola columns and other interior decoration are painted over....

Article

J. N. Mané-Wheoki

(b Hastings, E. Sussex, Sept 5, 1814; d Bakewell, Derbys, Oct 19, 1890).

New Zealand architect and Clergyman of English birth. He was elected to membership of the Institute of British Architects in 1836 and practised in London before emigrating to New Zealand in 1843. Under the direction of George Augustus Selwyn (1809–78), the colony’s first bishop, he designed St Mary’s church, New Plymouth, in severe Early English Gothic, and Te Henui parsonage, also in New Plymouth—both stone structures dating from 1845.

Meanwhile, in 1845 Thatcher had been appointed Superintendent of Public Works for New Zealand, as well as being supervising architect at Selwyn’s College of St John the Evangelist, Auckland. Assisted by Reader Wood (1821–95) he developed and refined the ‘Selwyn Gothic’ style in structurally expressive timber buildings reminiscent of medieval half-timbering. Their exposed framework consists of chamfered horizontal and vertical members and arched bracing, with cladding of upright planking on the interior. Roofs are steeply pitched with deep eaves. In the College Chapel (...

Article

John W. F. Cattell

(b Glasgow, Aug 23, 1824; d Wellington, New Zealand, Feb 23, 1907).

Scottish architect, active in New Zealand. He was employed as Clerk of Works to David Bryce in Edinburgh before travelling to Victoria, Australia, in 1851 where he practised as an architect in the gold-digging townships. He moved to San Francisco in 1861 and over a ten-year period designed many buildings there, none of which is known to have survived. Overwork following the earthquake of 1868 led to a breakdown in his health and his emigration to New Zealand in the early 1870s. He settled in Wellington, establishing an extensive practice there. At the time of his arrival the use of brick for building construction was eschewed by that city’s inhabitants who favoured earthquake-resistant wooden structures. Turnbull introduced methods of strengthening brick buildings learnt in San Francisco and was instrumental in transforming Wellington into a brick city of ornate public and commercial buildings in a variety of classical styles.

Turnbull was a pragmatic colonial architect whose work shows a greater concern for practical considerations than for stylistic fidelity. His architecture is representative of the Scottish classical tradition in contrast to the Gothic bias evident in the work of most of his English-trained contemporaries. However, two of his finest surviving Wellington buildings are in the Gothic Revival style. These are the wooden St John’s Presbyterian Church (...

Article

Ursula M. de Jong

(b London, Sept 27, 1823; d Sydney, Nov 19, 1899).

English architect and engineer, active in Australia. He trained as an engineer for the Commissioners of the London Sewers (1839–1843) and as an architect with W. F. East. He greatly admired A. W. N. Pugin, whose work influenced him. In 1843 he became a convert to Roman Catholicism. Between 1846 and 1858 he designed 36 Catholic Gothic Revival churches in Britain, four in an Italianate style, and numerous parsonages, convent buildings and schools. His works are characterized by elegant proportions and architectonic massiveness. St Birinus (1847), Dorchester-on-Thames, Oxon, and Our Immaculate Lady of Victories (1849–51), Clapham, London, are excellent examples of his early Decorated work. His later work in Britain is characterized by a simpler and bolder architectural exposition, in which geometric, rather than curvilinear, patterns dominate the tracery design.

In 1858 owing to ill-health Wardell sold his professional practice and emigrated to Melbourne, Australia. In December of that year he was commissioned to design ...

Article

John Maidment

(b Hobart, April 21, 1890; d Brighton, Victoria, March 27, 1980).

Australian architect . Articled initially to Frank Heyward in Hobart in 1910, he transferred to Alexander North in Launceston, with whom he was in partnership in Melbourne between 1913–20. Williams absorbed important elements of North’s Arts and Crafts philosophy, particularly the patronage of local craft workers, yet was given freedom to develop a personal style. Williams’s early church designs thus have distinctive elements including obliquely placed towers, triangular buttressing and bellcotes surmounted by spikes; their planning influenced by Ralph Adams Cram’s Church Building. Williams’s work further developed in the 1920s and 1930s when he became Australia’s most sought-after church architect, with work in all Australian states; he was Diocesan Architect at the dioceses of Bathurst and Grafton. His preferred material was brick with occasional use of reinforced concrete. Williams developed a clearly identifiable free Gothic synthesis, characterized by simplicity, freedom from period references and unencumbered wall surfaces, comparable with British contemporaries such as Sir Edward Maufe. His work often included a tower and his façades often incorporated a masonry cross and tiled roofs. His interiors were notable for their generous planning, careful lighting and furniture of impeccable design, while also making provision for climatic extremes, such as ventilating panels and shading from direct sunlight....