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Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 14 April 1868, in Hamburg; died 27 February 1940, in Berlin.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver, architect, designer, decorative artist, graphic designer. Posters, furniture, wallpaper, carpets, glassware, ceramics, table services, jewellery, silverwork, objets d'art, typefaces.

Jugendstil, functional school.

Die Sieben (Group of Seven), Deutscher Werkbund...

Article

Iain Boyd Whyte

(b Hamburg, April 14, 1868; d Berlin, Feb 27, 1940).

German architect, designer and painter. Progressing from painting and graphics to product design and architecture, Behrens achieved his greatest successes with his work for the Allgemeine Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft (AEG), in which he reconciled the Prussian Classicist tradition with the demands of industrial fabrication.

After attending the Realgymnasium in Altona, he began his painting studies in 1886 at the Kunstakademie in Karlsruhe. From there he moved to Düsseldorf, where he studied with Ferdinand Brütt. In December 1889 Behrens married Lilli Krämer, and the following year the couple moved to Munich, where he continued his studies with Hugo Kotschenreiter (1854–1908). Behrens was one of the founder-members of the Munich Secession (see Secession, §1) in 1893 and, shortly afterwards, a founder of the more progressive Freie Vereinigung Münchener Künstler, with Otto Eckmann, Max Slevogt, Wilhelm Trübner and Lovis Corinth. He also joined the circle associated with the magazine Pan, which included Otto Julius Bierbaum, Julius Meier-Graefe, Franz Blei, Richard Dehmel and Otto Eckmann....

Article

Swiss, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in Germany.

Born 31 December 1849, in St Gall; died 1921, in Planegg.

Architect, painter, decorative designer, theorist. Designs (furniture/fabrics/metal objects/ceramics).

Jugendstil.

From 1868 to 1871 Hans Eduard von Berlepsch-Valendas was a student of architecture with Gottfried Sempers in Zurich. After graduating he abandoned architecture while he was living in Frankfurt, to go and train as a painter in Munich (...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Active in the USA.

Born 15 March 1883, in Stuttgart; died 29 May 1972, in New York.

Painter, sculptor, graphic designer, poster artist, illustrator, architect, designer, decorative artist. Designs for carpets, advertising art, furniture, lamps, wallpaper.

Jugendstil.

Deutscher Werkbund.

Lucian Bernhard studied painting at the Kunstakademie in Munich, but taught himself design. He was active in Berlin. In ...

Article

Austrian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 25 February 1861, in Vienna; died 20 February 1927, in Klosterneuburg.

Painter, draughtsman, illustrator.

Art Nouveau.

Adolf Böhm was a co-founder, together with Gustav Klimt and the architect Joseph Hoffmann, of the Viennese Sezession movement in the closing years of the 19th century. Vienna was the city where 'Jugendstil' (literally, 'Youthful Style'), a movement that rejected academic conformity, first flowered; it would later spread to Germany, France, Belgium, England and elsewhere. He taught in the women's department of the academy of fine arts ...

Article

Italian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in France from 1900.

Born 12 February 1856, in Milan; died 1940, in Molsheim (Bas-Rhin), France.

Painter, sculptor, designer of ornamental architectural features, decorative artist. Portraits. Furniture.

Orientalism, Art Nouveau.

Carlo Bugatti studied at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera in Milan, then at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. He was originally interested in architecture, producing work that was heavily influenced by the strong styles of ancient Egypt and Islam. He later decided to devote himself to designing furniture and ornamentation. His talent was soon recognised and he was awarded many distinctions at exhibitions in London, Turin and at the 1900 Exposition Universelle in Paris. He sold his company in Milan and settled in Paris, then in 1910 in Compiègne. At the end of his life, beset by tragedies, including the suicide of his son Rembrandt in 1916, he went to live with his other son, Ettore, who had the car factory at Molsheim. Giovanni, Ettore's son and heir, was killed when testing a car in 1939....

Article

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 1875, in Ath; died 1952, in Brussels.

Painter, architect. Portraits, genre scenes, landscapes. Murals.

Art Nouveau.

After studying architecture at the art school in Antwerp, Paul Cauchie trained as a painter at the Brussels academy under Portaels. He also worked in Holland....

Article

Marie Demanet

(b Ath, Jan 7, 1875; d Brussels, Sept 1, 1952).

Belgian decorative artist, architect and painter. He began architectural studies at the Koninklijke Academie voor Schone Kunsten in Antwerp but broke off to pursue courses on the decorative arts at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels, graduating in 1898. The tuition he received there from the painter Constant Montald gave him a taste for mural art and he soon developed a business that specialized in sgraffito painting, a technique that had recently come back into fashion. He completed some 440 design projects, most of which were for building façades and stairways. As an interior designer, painter and draughtsman, Cauchie was influenced by the Arts and Crafts movement and the work of Charles Rennie Mackintosh and the Glasgow style and he produced a variety of work in the applied arts. Towards 1905 his style became more geometrical. It was at this time that he built his own studio and house at Etterbeek, Brussels, in collaboration with the architect ...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 12 April 1861, in Toulouse; died 16 October 1937, in Pinsaguel.

Painter, designer, designer of ornamental architectural features. Portraits, landscapes.

Art Nouveau.

Joseph Des Essars Professionally he was best known as a designer and bookbinder. He painted landscapes of the south-western region of France where he was born; his stays in Algeria and Tunisia, however, showed him to be something of an Orientalist attracted by the light and colours of North Africa....

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 12 April 1871, in Berlin; died 15 April 1925, in Breslau (now Wroclaw, Poland).

Draughtsman, architect, decorative artist, designer, illustrator, author. Furniture, jewellery, lamps, art objects.

Jugendstil.

Deutscher Werkbund.

In Munich, August Endell studied philosophy, art history, aesthetics and psychology, notably a course run by Theodor Lipp on the psychological effect of the perception of lines and forms. There, in ...

Article

Charlotte Moser

[Sluijters, Georges Joseph van; Feuren, Georges van]

(b Paris, Sept 6, 1868; d Paris, Nov 26, 1928).

French designer and painter. Son of a Dutch architect and a Belgian mother, he started out as an actor, costumier and then interior decorator in Paris. In 1894 at the Galerie des Artistes Modernes he exhibited watercolours and paintings of a moderate Symbolist style, typically depicting women in a manner reminiscent of Aubrey Beardsley’s work. Capturing the essence of the feminine spirit became his trademark. With Eugène Gaillard and Edouard Colonna he was selected by Siegfried Bing, founder of the Galeries de l’Art Nouveau, to design rooms for his Pavilion Bing at the Exposition Universelle, Paris (1900). De Feure’s carpets, glassware and furniture designs for the boudoir and toilette were based on the theme of woman, emphasizing delicate lines and elegant sensuality. He later left Bing’s gallery and, as an independent designer, created vide-poche furniture, which contained hidden marquetry compartments. This furniture suggested notions of secrecy and coquetry, themes that de Feure pursued throughout his career....

Article

Janice Helland

Term denoting the style of works of art produced in Glasgow from c. 1890 to c. 1920 and particularly associated with Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Herbert MacNair and the Macdonald family sisters, Frances and Margaret. The style originated at the Glasgow School of Art, where Francis H. Newbery (1853–1946) became director in 1885. Influenced by the Arts and Crafts Movement, Newbery had a commitment to excellence in art that combined functionalism with beauty while encouraging individuality and experimentation among his students. Within three years he had brought in the Century Guild of Artists’ chief metalworker, William Kellock Brown (1856–1934), to teach modelling and metalwork at the School. Kellock Brown had an intimate understanding of A. H. Mackmurdo’s approach to art, as articulated in the journal The Hobby Horse (launched in spring 1884), which voiced a desire for the unification of the old with the new and for an artistic relationship between abstract lines and masses that would reflect the harmonious whole found in nature. The development of the style was given further impetus by the fact that ...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active from 1933 active in Switzerland.

Born 4 May 1874, in Hörde (Westphalia); died 18 July 1949, in Interlaken or Beatenberg (Canton of Bern).

Sculptor (including bronze/majolica/ceramics), painter (including gouache), engraver, draughtsman, architect, graphic designer. Statuettes, figurines.

Jugendstil.

Darmstadt Artists' Colony, Worpswede Artists' Colony...

Article

British, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 7 June 1868, in Glasgow; died 10 December 1928, in London.

Designer, watercolourist. Designs for furniture and textiles.

Art Nouveau.

Glasgow School.

Charles Rennie Mackintosh began work in an architectural studio at the age of 16, and subsequently trained at Glasgow School of Art between ...

Article

James Macaulay

(b Glasgow, June 7, 1868; d London, Dec 10, 1928).

Scottish architect, designer and painter. In the pantheon of heroes of the Modern Movement, he has been elevated to a cult figure, such that the importance of his late 19th-century background and training in Glasgow are often overlooked. He studied during a period of great artistic activity in the city that produced the distinctive Glasgow style. As a follower of A. W. N. Pugin and John Ruskin, he believed in the superiority of Gothic over Classical architecture and by implication that moral integrity in architecture could be achieved only through revealed construction. Although Mackintosh’s buildings refrain from overt classicism, they reflect its inherent discipline. His profound originality was evident by 1895, when he began the designs for the Glasgow School of Art. His decorative schemes, particularly the furniture, also formed an essential element in his buildings. During Mackintosh’s lifetime his influence was chiefly felt in Austria, in the work of such painters as Gustav Klimt and such architects as Josef Hoffmann and Joseph Maria Olbrich. The revival of interest in his work was initiated by the publication of monographs by Pevsner (...

Article

(b Moscow, Sept 22, 1859; d Moscow, Dec 6, 1937).

Russian painter and designer. He attended the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture in 1881–90, studying under Vladimir Makovsky, Vasily Polenov and Illarion Pryanishnikov, and joined the Wanderers (Peredvizhniki) in 1891. At first Malyutin supported the traditions of narrative Realism, as is clear from paintings such as Peasant Girl (1890; Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.), although he quickly developed other interests in the popular arts and crafts, in history painting and in plein-air painting.

Like other Russian artists of his time such as Ivan Bilibin, Nicholas Roerich, the Vasnetsov brothers and Mikhail Vrubel’, Malyutin turned for inspiration to Russian folklore, ancient history and the domestic arts, as in his panoramic Battle of Kulikovo for the Historical Museum in Moscow (1898) and in his invention in 1889 of the matryoshka (Russian stacking doll), which, misleadingly, has now been accepted as an integral part of traditional Russian folk art. In the 1890s he worked at the ...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1857, in Seurre (Côte d'Or); died 1951, in Brussels.

Painter, draughtsman, watercolourist, designer of ornamental architectural features, designer. Portraits, figures, interiors, genre scenes, landscapes. Designs for stained glass, furniture.

Symbolism, Art Nouveau.

Auguste Morisot was a pupil at the École des Beaux-Arts in Lyons. He was sent on a mission to Venezuela in ...

Article

British, 19th century, male.

Born 24 March 1834, in Walthamstow (Essex); died 3 October 1896, at Kelmscott House, Hammersmith, London.

Painter, draughtsman, designer, typographer, poet, architect. Designs (furniture/wallpapers/fabrics/stained glass windows).

Symbolism, Arts and Crafts, Art Nouveau.

Pre-Raphaelite.

William Morris the son of a successful City of London bill-broker, grew up in Walthamstow, on the edge of Epping Forest, and was educated at Marlborough College, in Wiltshire....

Article

Christopher Long

(b Lemberg [now Lviv, Ukraine], Dec 21, 1858; d Vienna, April 6, 1927).

Austrian architect, painter and sculptor. The son of an architect in imperial government service, he studied architecture with leading historicists Max von Ferstel (1859–1936) and Karl König (1841–1915) at the Technische Hochschule, Vienna (1877–82), and later with Ferdinand von Schmidt at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste. After completing his studies (1885), he taught at the Staatsgewerbeschule in Vienna and in 1889 took a post at the School of Applied Arts in Prague. Although he established a reputation as one of the leading interpreters of the neo-Baroque, Ohmann became an early adherent to the style of the Viennese Secession and designed the first Jugendstil building in Prague, the Café Corso (1897–8). Like most Austrian architects of the period, however, Ohmann never wholly rejected the past and much of his later work blended neo-Baroque and Jugendstil forms.

In 1899 Ohmann was called back to Vienna to oversee the construction of the new wing of the Hofburg, the imperial palace. He resigned in ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 16 May 1872, in Münster; died 5 April 1943, in Baierbrunn (Upper Bavaria), in Munich according to other sources.

Architect, painter, draughtsman, illustrator, engraver, sculptor, interior designer, graphic designer. Portraits, landscapes with figures, landscapes, portraits. Stage sets, designs (furniture).

Jugendstil, Art Deco...