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Article

Roberto Pontual

(b Vercelli, Italy, 1843; d Rio de Janeiro, 1910).

Brazilian caricaturist and painter. He came to Brazil in 1859, having already acquired some knowledge of painting in Paris. He settled initially in São Paulo, where he at once started to publish caricatures attacking black slavery. There, in 1864, he was one of the founders of the comic newspaper O Diabo Coxo. His abolitionist spirit continued after he moved to Rio de Janeiro, through his frequent collaboration in periodicals such as A Vida Fluminense, O Mosquito, Don Quixote and O Malho. In the Revista Ilustrada he began to publish in 1884 the first long-running strip cartoon in Brazil, the adventures of Zé Caipora, a sertão (hinterland) character, depicting a lesser-known side of Brazil. As a painter he specialized in landscapes but also produced portraits with the same fervour that fired his enjoyable and impassioned satirical drawings, for example Portrait of the Writer Joaquin Augusto Ribeiro de Sousa (c. 1890...

Article

Argentinian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 16 September 1856, in Buenos Aires; died 16 September 1933, in Buenos Aires.

Engraver.

Emilio Carnelio Agrelo was self-taught and produced a large number of etchings. He introduced etching to Argentina in the last decade of the 19th century, before which the technique had been unknown. Emilio Agrela was obliged to pass his commissions on to artists in Paris. There is a room named after him at the national museum in Buenos Aires....

Article

Peruvian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in Tenador, Ecuador.

Painter.

Albuya painted the portrait of Gonzalès Suarez that was exhibited in 1900 at the decennial exhibition in Paris.

Article

Elisa García Barragán

(b Marseille; d after 1912).

Italian sculptor and teacher, active in France and Mexico. He began his career in Marseille as a sculptor of the French school, and in 1888 he received an honourable mention at the Salon des Artistes Français, where he exhibited regularly until 1913. He probably moved to Mexico at the end of 1889. He won critical acclaim for his first works there, marble and bronze busts of important Mexican figures. In 1891 the government commissioned him to create statues of national heroes and dignitaries for the Paseo de la Reforma, Mexico City; the statue of Col. Miguel López was exhibited at the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago, IL, in 1893 and at the World’s Fair in Atlanta, GA, in 1895, winning prizes on both occasions. This was Alciati’s most dramatic and realist work, and the influence of Rodin is clear. In 1895 he was appointed professor of sculpture, decoration and modelling at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes, Mexico City. At the turn of the century he was commissioned to create, under the direction of ...

Article

Chilean, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born in Santiago.

Painter.

Alégria exhibited at the national society of fine arts with Study in 1913.

Article

Roberto Pontual

revised by Gillian Sneed

(b Itu, 1850; d Piracicaba, 1899).

Brazilian painter. With the financial help of family and friends, as a young man Almeida Júnior moved to Rio de Janeiro to study art in 1869. He attended the Academia Imperial das Belas Artes in Rio de Janeiro, where he studied drawing under Jules Le Chevrel (c. 1810–1872) and painting with Victor Meirelles de Lima. Deeply attached to the interior of the state of São Paulo, where he was born, Almeida Júnior returned there as soon as he had completed his studies in 1874. In 1875 he opened a studio in his hometown of Itu, where he taught drawing and painted portraits. In a trip to the countryside of São Paulo in 1876, the Emperor Peter II (r. 1831–1889) came across Almeida Júnior’s work. Impressed, he offered to pay for him to study in Europe. Under the patronage of the Emperor, Almeida Júnior travelled to Europe in 1876...

Article

Roberto Pontual

(b Cerro, 1858; d Paris, 1935).

Brazilian painter and caricaturist. Brought as a child from the interior of the state of Minas Gerais to Rio de Janeiro, he graduated in 1877 from the Academia Imperial das Belas Artes. By then he had already published his first caricatures in the Rio press, and he continued to be a frequent contributor to such humorous periodicals as O Binóculo, O Rataplan (which he founded in 1886), O Mercúrio, A Bruxa, O Malho, Fon-Fon! and Don Quixote. He first went to Europe in 1888, where he finished his studies with Jules Lefebvre in Paris and travelled to Italy. On his return to Brazil at the beginning of the 1890s, he taught drawing at the Escola Nacional de Belas Artes in Rio de Janeiro, but he spent most of the latter part of his life in Paris. There, despite the underlying academicism from which his work was never entirely free and unlike the majority of Brazilian artists of the time, he showed genuine interest in the avant-garde developments of modernist art....

Article

Brazilian, 19th – 20th century, female.

Born in Rio de Janeiro.

Painter.

Alto Mearim was a student of José Malhoa. She exhibited genre pictures and oil portraits, as well as pastels, in Paris in 1900.

Article

Ecuadorean, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born in Cuenca, Equador.

Sculptor.

Daniel Alvarado exhibited a wooden bust at the decennial exhibition of fine arts in Paris in 1900.

Article

Ecuadorean, 19th – 20th century, female.

Active in Ecuador.

Painter.

Palmira Alvarado exhibited at the decennial exhibition of fine arts in Paris in 1900.

Article

Monica E. Kupfer

(b Santiago de Veraguas, March 25, 1869; d Panama City, Nov 12, 1952).

Panamanian painter, draughtsman and printmaker. He is known chiefly as the designer of the national flag (1903) of Panama. He studied business administration and had a long career in public office. When Panama became independent in 1903, he became Secretario de Hacienda and in 1904 Consul-General ad-honorem to Hamburg. In 1908 he moved to New York, where he studied with Robert Henri, who strongly influenced his style of vigorous drawing, loose brushwork, distorted expressionist images and sombre colours, as in Head Study (1910; Panama City, R. Miró priv. col.; see Miró). He produced most of his work between 1910 and 1914 and again after the late 1930s; his main subject was the human figure, but he also painted portraits, landscapes and still-lifes. On his return to Panama in the 1930s he worked as an auditor in the Contraloría General. After his retirement he resumed painting and produced some of his most passionate works, such as ...

Article

Brazilian, 19th century, male.

Painter.

Amaras carried out the decoration of the former imperial palaces of Rio de Janeiro (before 1840). He was also an architect.

Article

(b Areia, 1843; d Florence, 1905).

Brazilian painter. His precocious talent as a draughtsman was recognized as early as 1853, when he accompanied the expedition led by the French naturalist Louis Jacques Brunet to the north-east of Brazil. He then went to Rio de Janeiro, where he entered the Academia Imperial das Belas Artes in 1855. Under the patronage of Emperor Peter II he lived in France from 1859 to 1864, studying with Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres and Horace Vernet at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. His interests also included physics, philosophy and literature. His essay ‘Refutation of the Life of Jesus by Renan’ won him the decoration of the papal order of the Holy Sepulchre. He also painted one of his first important pictures at this time, Carioca (‘Woman from Rio de Janeiro’; 1862; Rio de Janeiro, Mus. N. B.A.). On his return to Brazil he taught drawing (and, later, art history, aesthetics and archaeology) at the Academia Imperial. When the Republic was proclaimed in ...

Article

Brazilian, 19th century, male.

Born 1843, in Areias (Pernambuco); died 1905.

Painter, writer. History painting.

Americo studied painting in Paris with Ingres. The German emperor owned one of his early works, Woman from Rio de Janeiro. He produced many paintings that celebrated Brazilian independence. He was also interested in literature, the natural sciences and politics. He spent a long period working in Florence, where he produced and successfully exhibited one of his large pictures, ...

Article

Brazilian, 19th century, male.

Painter. Portraits, genre scenes.

Amoedo exhibited in Paris in 1882 and 1887 and in Rio de Janeiro in 1901, with Portrait of a Woman.

Article

South American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in Ecuador.

Sculptor.

Andrade Torre took part in the Exposition Universelle of 1900, with a bust sculpted in wood.

Article

Luis Enrique Tord

(b Paris, Aug 8, 1808; d Paris, Jan 11, 1886).

French painter and draughtsman, active in Peru. He served as the French Vice-Consul in Lima from 1834 to 1838 and while there produced albums of watercolours and drawings of cities such as Arica, Arequipa, Lima, Cuzco, Ollantaytambo, Urubamba and Tacna. His romantic spirit inclined him to the exotic, and he documented street scenes, the characters of city life, groups of buildings and archaeological monuments. Taken as a whole, these pictures bear witness to everyday life in Peru at that time....

Article

Myriam A. Ribeiro de Oliveira and Liliana Herrera

In 

Article

Ricardo Pau-Llosa

(b ?Havana, 1864; d Paris, Aug 17, 1889).

Cuban painter. He was one of the most prominent students of Miguel Melero (1836–1907), the first Cuban-born director of the Academia de S Alejandro in Havana (founded 1818). Morell also studied at the Academia de S Fernando in Madrid. Morell’s portraits, with their natural poses in domestic settings, reflect an ease with effects of light and texture not seen in the work of his Cuban contemporaries, with the exception of Guillermo Collazo. One of his most significant works is In the Garden (1888; Havana, Mus. N. B.A.), in which the use of light is reminiscent of the naturalism of plein-air, with which Morell would almost certainly have come into contact in Spain. His promising career was cut short by typhus when he was 25.

J. Mañach: ‘La pintura en Cuba: Desde sus orígenes hasta 1900’, Las bellas artes en Cuba, xviii of La evolución de la cultura cubana (1608–1927)...

Article

Cuban, 19th century, male.

Active in Havanac.1895.

Painter.