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Article

Argentinian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 16 September 1856, in Buenos Aires; died 16 September 1933, in Buenos Aires.

Engraver.

Emilio Carnelio Agrelo was self-taught and produced a large number of etchings. He introduced etching to Argentina in the last decade of the 19th century, before which the technique had been unknown. Emilio Agrela was obliged to pass his commissions on to artists in Paris. There is a room named after him at the national museum in Buenos Aires....

Article

Monica E. Kupfer

(b Santiago de Veraguas, March 25, 1869; d Panama City, Nov 12, 1952).

Panamanian painter, draughtsman and printmaker. He is known chiefly as the designer of the national flag (1903) of Panama. He studied business administration and had a long career in public office. When Panama became independent in 1903, he became Secretario de Hacienda and in 1904 Consul-General ad-honorem to Hamburg. In 1908 he moved to New York, where he studied with Robert Henri, who strongly influenced his style of vigorous drawing, loose brushwork, distorted expressionist images and sombre colours, as in Head Study (1910; Panama City, R. Miró priv. col.; see Miró). He produced most of his work between 1910 and 1914 and again after the late 1930s; his main subject was the human figure, but he also painted portraits, landscapes and still-lifes. On his return to Panama in the 1930s he worked as an auditor in the Contraloría General. After his retirement he resumed painting and produced some of his most passionate works, such as ...

Article

Atl, Dr  

Xavier Moyssén

[Murillo, Gerardo ]

(b Guadalajara, Oct 3, 1875; d Mexico City, Aug 14, 1964).

Mexican painter, printmaker, writer, theorist, vulcanologist and politician. Better known by his pseudonym, which signifies ‘Doctor Water’ in Náhuatl and which he adopted in 1902, Murillo first studied art in Guadalajara and from 1890 to 1896 at the Academia de San Carlos in Mexico City, where his vocation became clear. In 1899 he travelled to Europe and settled in Rome, where the work of Michelangelo had a profound impact on him. He travelled to other countries to study and to learn about avant-garde painting. He went back to Mexico in 1904 and seven years later returned to Europe, only to rush back when the Revolution broke out in Mexico. He joined the revolutionary movement, taking an active role in its various activities, including the muralist movement, through which he was associated with Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco and David Alfaro Siqueiros. Although he practised portrait painting, his passion was for landscape in a variety of techniques and materials, some of them invented by him; for example, he used ‘atlcolours’, which were simply crayons made of wax, resins and pigment with which he could obtain textures not obtainable with oil paint. His favoured supports were rigid surfaces such as wood or hardboard....

Article

Luis Enrique Tord

(fl mid-19th century).

?French draughtsman and lithographer active in the USA and Peru. He lived briefly in the USA, where in 1852 he published a book containing 32 woodcuts depicting American working-class figures. Later he moved to Lima, the capital of Peru, where he published two albums of hand-coloured lithographs, Recuerdos de Lima...

Article

Argentinian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1858, in Turin; died 1921, in Buenos Aires.

Engraver.

It is to Bosco that the first colour etching produced in Argentina is attributed, Coachman Sleeping on His Seat. He also created the original design for Argentinian notes and coins before ...

Article

Argentinian, 19th century, male.

Painter, engraver.

Brocos lived and worked in Rio de Janeiro. However, he exhibited at the Royal Academy, London, and at the New Water-Colour Society in London from 1882 to 1891 and in Paris at the Salon des Artistes Français in 1888...

Article

Jocelyn Fraillon Gray

(b Morges, Vaud, March 3, 1814; d Melbourne, Victoria, May 30, 1888).

Swiss painter, lithographer and photographer, active in Brazil and Australia. He attended a drawing school in Lausanne, where his teacher may have been Marc-Louis Arlaud (1772–1845), and is thought to have spent some time with the landscape painter Camille Flers in Paris c. 1836 en route to Bahia (Salvador), Brazil. In 1840 he moved to Rio de Janeiro, where he established himself as a painter of local views and exhibited with the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts, Rio. His Brazilian landscapes, of which the View of Gamboa (1852; Rio de Janeiro, Mus. N. B.A.) is an example, received critical acclaim for their vivacious lighting. As a photographer he fulfilled commissions in daguerreotype for Emperor Peter II, and with the figure painter Auguste Moreau he produced a set of 18 lithographs, Picturesque Rio de Janeiro, published in 1843–4. From 1852 to 1864 he worked as a portrait photographer in Switzerland and from ...

Article

Jorge Luján-Muñoz

(b Guatemala City, Sept 16, 1781; d Guatemala City, Nov 21, 1845).

Guatemalan painter, printmaker, and medallist. He entered the mint in 1795 as an apprentice engraver but on the recommendation of its director, Pedro Garci-Aguirre, also became Master Corrector at the Escuela de Dibujo de la Sociedad Económica de Amigos del País, Guatemala City, in 1796, holding the post until 1804. He continued working at the mint until 1809 and demonstrated outstanding skill both as a medallist and engraver of coins and as an engraver and etcher. He returned to the mint in 1823 as second engraver, remaining in the post until his death.

Despite the quality of his work as a printmaker and medallist, Cabrera gained artistic recognition especially as a miniature painter, working mostly in watercolour on ivory in a meticulous technique. He produced some miniatures on religious themes and others of birds, but the majority, measuring no more than 50 mm in height or width, were portraits of members of the Guatemalan aristocracy and bourgeoisie. It is not known exactly how many he produced, but from the middle of the 1830s he began to number them, starting from 500; the highest known number of the approximately 200 authenticated miniatures is 745. Although he suffered some illness, he was most productive during the last five years of his life. An evolution can be discerned from his earliest works, dating from ...

Article

Argentinian, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born at the end of the 18th century, in Buenos Aires; died 1878, in Buenos Aires.

Painter, lithographer. Figure compositions.

Camana was the founder of the Society for the Development of Art in Argentina in 1876, and also taught design to Doña Mamelita Rosas, wife of the famous general. He created the picture: ...

Article

Fausto Ramírez

(b Mexico City, April 24, 1826; d Mexico City, Jan 8, 1889).

Mexican lithographer, draughtsman, and painter. He may have studied at the Academia de San Carlos, Mexico City, but it seems more likely that he trained professionally with the Italian lithographer, painter and stage designer Pedro Gualdi (fl 1838–c. 1851). He subsequently worked with another stage designer, the Frenchman Eduardo Rivière, producing lithographs of Rivière’s illustrations to his novel Antonio y Anita o los nuevos misterios de México (1851). Castro made drawings and c. 30 lithographs (with the help of J. Campilo among others) for the album México y sus alrededores (1855–6), published by Decaen. It was an album of urban landscapes and the most popular mid-century local customs, and gave rise to several successive editions, with the addition or substitution of some prints in order accommodate the historical events in Mexico up to the late 1860s. Facsimile editions were still publishing well into the 21st century. Copies of the album are housed in the Museo Nacional de Arte, the Museo de la Ciudad, and the Museo Nacional de Historia, Castillo de Chapultepec, Mexico City. It offers a characteristic, contemporary view of the capital, including depictions of buildings, squares, and streets embellished with figures representative of all social classes, professions, and occupations. In ...

Article

Esther Acevedo

(b London, 1799; d at sea nr Liverpool, 1854).

English draughtsman and printmaker active in Mexico. He studied architecture at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in London and continued his studies in Rome. He accompanied the American archaeologist John Lloyd Stephens (1805–52) on two trips to Mexico. On the first, in 1839–40, he undertook to draw the archaeological ruins of Palenque, Uxmal, Copán and other places or monuments specified by Stephens. Under the terms of the contract Stephens became the owner of the originals, with the right to reproduce them. On the second trip, in 1841–2, Stephens bought Copán with the intention of exporting archaeological pieces from Mexico.

Catherwood employed both the camera lucida and daguerreotypes in the production of drawings, from which more than 200 engravings were made; these were published in two books, Incidents of Travel in Central America, Chiapas and Yucatan (New York, 1841) and Incidents of Travel in Yucatan (New York, ...

Article

Donald A. Rosenthal

(b El Limón, nr Samaná [now in the Dominican Republic], Sept 20, 1819; d Paris, Oct 8, 1856).

French painter and printmaker (see fig.). In 1822 Chassériau moved with his family to Paris, where he received a bourgeois upbringing under the supervision of an older brother. A precociously gifted draughtsman, he entered Ingres’s studio at the age of 11 and remained there until Ingres left to head the Académie de France in Rome in 1834. He made his Salon début in 1836 with several portraits and religious subjects, including Cain Accursed (Paris, priv. col.), for which he received a third-class medal. Among his many submissions in subsequent years were Susanna Bathing (1839, exh. Salon 1839; Paris, Louvre), a Marine Venus (1838; exh. Salon 1839; Paris, Louvre) and the Toilet of Esther (1841, exh. Salon 1842; Paris, Louvre); these three paintings of nude female figures combine an idealization derived from Ingres with a sensuality characteristic of Chassériau.

By 1840–41, when Chassériau rejoined Ingres in Rome, he had begun to turn away from his teacher’s linear stylization. He became increasingly critical of the academic curriculum and passed his time making sketches of the Italian countryside and studying Renaissance frescoes, which later influenced his approach to painting monumental decorations. His best easel paintings of the early 1840s, the portraits of the Dominican friar ...

Article

Argentinian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1865, in Buenos Aires.

Engraver, lithographer, illustrator.

The work of Carlos Clerice was featured at the Engraving in Argentina exhibition in Rosario in 1942. As early as 1879, he illustrated the first edition of Martín Fierro (), the story of a gaucho by the Argentinian writer José Hernadez. He helped to illustrate various magazines and completed numerous lithographs....

Article

Mexican, 19th century, male.

Born 1830; died 1891, in Toluca.

Painter, engraver. Scenes with figures, landscapes, architectural views.

Coto was a student at the San Alejandro academy in Mexico City, where his teacher was Eugenio Landesio. His works pay important witness to the history, architecture, culture, traditions and landscapes of Mexico....

Article

Eloísa Uribe

(b England, 1797; d Tacubaya, Mexico City, April 27, 1842).

English painter, draughtsman and engraver, active in Mexico. He exhibited with the Royal Society of British Artists, of which he was a founder-member, between 1824 and 1829. Inspired by the writings of Alexander Humboldt, he travelled to Mexico in 1830 and from 1831 made a series of sketches of landscapes including views of mines, ranches and cities. Twenty-five oil paintings and more than a hundred watercolours and drawings in red chalk date from this period. On his return to England, his pictures were made into prints to form an album of colour lithographs. As the record of a travelling artist, the album contributed to a fashionable genre of the period. Egerton’s work depicted an abundant natural world and prosperous towns, with each urban or rural landscape inhabited by people dressed in traditional costume, who are generally positioned in the foreground and surrounded by typical local vegetation (e.g. View of the Valley of Mexico...

Article

Esther Acevedo

(b Mexico City, 1836; d Mexico City, 1868).

Mexican illustrator and printmaker. According to the obituary by Hilarión Frías y Soto, Escalante “was fortunate enough to escape scholastic corruption … His training was artistic, though disgracefully very incomplete.” This may indicate that Escalante trained in lithographic workshops without attending the Academia de S. Carlos, a recently restructured school for artists.

Although Escalante’s portrait of Pedro Picasso—his music teacher—was accepted at the Academia’s exhibition of 1855, his work as an illustrator did not take an academic route. He became involved in liberal politics at the end of the Three Year War in 1861 and was the first caricaturist for the biweekly newspaper review La Orquesta, which he founded that year with Carlos Alejandro Casarín, who used the pseudonym Roberto Macario in honor of the Honoré Daumier character Robert Macaire (a flattering swindler). Escalante chose to address local problems in his illustrations and both recorded and influenced the implementation of the liberal ideology and the strict enforcement of the ...

Article

Blanca García Vega

Spanish family of engravers and painters. Domingo Estruch y Jordán (b Muro, Alicante, 1796; d Madrid, 1851) trained in Valencia with his uncle, Francisco Jordán (c. 1778–1832), and after living in Mallorca and in Havana, Cuba, he established himself in Barcelona. He was an académico de mérito at the Academia de S Carlos in Valencia and a corresponding member of the Real Sociedad de Fomento in Havana. He engraved many religious prints, the funerary monument of Mariano Alvarez de Castro (1816) and illustrations for Alonso de Ercilla’s La Araucana (Barcelona, 1827) and for José Oriol y Bernadet’s Tratado elemental completo de dibujo lineal (Barcelona, 2/1850), as well as maps. His son Juan Estruch (b Barcelona, 1820; d Madrid, 1883) was his father’s pupil and between 1836 and 1840 also trained in Italy. Juan became the leading engraver for the Dirección de Hidrografía, Madrid, and engraved many maps and plans. His engraved portraits include those of the artist ...

Article

Jorge Luján-Muñoz

(b Guatemala City, Sept 4, 1787; d Guatemala City, March 22, 1867).

Guatemalan painter and printmaker. He was a pupil of the Guatemalan painter Juan José Rosales (1751–1816) and of Pedro Garci-Aguirre. He studied in the Escuela de Dibujo of the Sociedad de Amigos del País in Guatemala City, and he later taught there for more than 45 years; his role in training many artists was perhaps his greatest contribution. One of the first etchers and lithographers in Guatemala, in 1834 he was in charge of the lithographic reproduction of views of the indigenous ruins of Iximché and Utatlán published as illustrations (each 115×175 mm) in the Atlas geográfico del Estado de Guatemala (1835).

In 1835 Falla and other artists were commissioned to produce a collection of model drawings for the Academia de Estudios. In the same year he received a Guatemalan government award for one of his etchings and a commission for a portrait of General Francisco Morazán, the president of the Federation of Central America. Most of his pictures, almost all of them portraits, have been lost, but the quality of his brushwork and Neo-classical style can be appreciated in his portrait of ...

Article

Blanca García Vega

(fl Madrid, 1793–1828).

Spanish engraver. He trained at the Real Academia de S Fernando, Madrid, where he was a pupil of Manuel Salvador Carmona. In 1795, under Salvador Carmona’s direction, he copied Gerard Edelinck’s print of the Holy Family, a painting (Venice, Pin. Manfrediniana) formerly attributed to Leonardo. Fernández Noseret engraved St Cecilia (Madrid, Pal. Real) by Guido Reni, after the drawing by León Bueno (1793); St Joseph and St Lawrence after the paintings by Alonso Cano; and 13 plates after drawings by Antonio Carnicero for Colección de las principales suertes de una corrida de toros (Madrid, 1795). He collaborated on Brigada de artillería volante (Madrid, 1796) and in 1828 copied two 18th-century prints: St Barnabas by Francisco Muntaner Moner and St Ferdinand (Madrid, Prado) by Murillo, the latter after the engraving by Salvador Carmona.

E. Paez Rios: Repertorio de grabados españoles de la Biblioteca Nacional, 1 (Madrid, 1981), p. 344...

Article

Mexican, 19th century, male.

Born 1828, in Mérida (Yucatan); died 1899, in Mérida.

Painter, engraver, illustrator.