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Article

Turkish, 19th–20th century, male.

Born 29 May 1868, in Constantinople (now Istanbul); died 23 August 1944, in Paris.

Painter and collector. Portraits, genre scenes, landscapes.

Abdul-Medjid was the son of Sultan Abdülaziz, and later Crown Prince of the Ottoman Empire and Caliph. He was taught painting by Fausto Zonaro, an Italian artist who worked in the Ottoman court ...

Article

S. J. Vernoit

[Abū’l-Qāsim]

(fl c. 1816).

Persian painter. His only known work is a long composition depicting the Qajar monarch Fath ‛Ali Shah (reg 1797–1834) entertained by female musicians and dancers. The only surviving fragments of it are a painting of the shah (London, B. W. Robinson priv. col.) and three paintings of the entertainers (Tehran, Nigaristan Mus., ex-Amery priv. col.). The paintings of a woman playing a drum and of a woman playing a stringed instrument are signed raqam-i kamtarīn Abū’l-Qāsim (‘painted by the most humble Abu’l-Qasim’) and dated 1816, but the third painting showing a woman dancing is half-length and damaged. All the fragments share the same continuous architectural background and scale (a little less than life-size). Robinson has suggested that this mural might be the one described in the mid-19th century by the traveller Robert Binning, who reported that the house he occupied in Shiraz contained a painting of Fath ‛Ali Shah seated in state attended by ten women. The composition extended around three sides of the room and the figures were almost life-size. This identification suggests that Abu’l-Qasim might have been a native of Shiraz....

Article

[Muḥammad Ḥasan Khān Afshār]

(fl c. 1835–1865).

Persian painter. A noted court painter and portraitist under the Qajar rulers Muhammad Shah (reg 1834–48) and Nasir al-Din (reg 1848–96), Muhammad Hasan Afshar was awarded the title Painter Laureate (Pers. naqqāsh bāshī). A portrait dated 1847 in the Churchill Album (London, BL, Or. MS. 4938) depicts Muhammad Shah seated in a red tunic with blue sash and flashing diamonds. The artist’s most remarkable works are three life-size oil portraits of Nasir al-Din (Tehran, Gulistan Pal.; Tehran, Moghaddam priv. col. (see Robinson, 1991, fig.); and Isfahan, Chihil Sutun Palace, dated 1860). The artist also painted small varnished objects, such as a penbox dated 1846 (priv. col., see Robinson, 1989, fig.), which has a scene of the Last Judgement on the top and a Napoleonic battle scene on one side. The penbox was only finished in 1861 by Isma‛il Jalayir, who added a scene of the Qajar monarch Muhammad Shah in battle on the other side and a design and inscription on the base. Other members of the Afshar family also painted similar objects, such as another penbox with a scene of the Last Judgement (Los Angeles, CA, Co. Mus. A., 73.5.159)....

Article

Ahmad  

[Aḥmad]

(fl 1815–50).

Persian painter. He specialized in oil portraits of the Qajar rulers Fath ‛Ali Shah (reg 1797–1834) and Muhammad (reg 1834–48). To judge from Ahmad’s style, he was a pupil of Mihr ‛Ali (see islamic art, §viii, 11(i)). His early works include two portraits of Fath ‛Ali Shah. One dated 1818–19 (untraced) shows the Shah, whose face has been repainted, in full armour seated on the chair-like throne known as the takht-i nādirī and part of the Iranian Crown Jewels. A second portrait dated 1822–3 (Tehran, Brit. Embassy) shows the ruler seated on a jewelled carpet with a hooka at his side. Ahmad’s later work is more Europeanized in style. A large painting dated 1844 (Tehran, Gulistan Pal. Lib.) depicts Muhammad reviewing his troops, and another oil dated 1846 (Tehran, Firuz priv. col.) is a fine bust portrait of the monarch. Two paintings of female acrobats have also been attributed to his hand on the basis of the bold palette, bravura treatment of pattern and use of white to delineate eyelids and forehead....

Article

Turkish, 19th century, male.

Born 1841, in Turkey; died 1907.

Painter. Landscapes, still-lifes.

Cheker Ahmet Pacha was a pioneer of Turkish oil painting. He was afforded imperial protection in order to be able to study under Boulanger and Gérôme in 1862. Some of his canvases display the distinct influence of Gustave Courbet, although his expressive naivety puts his work closer to that of Rousseau. His exposure to western artistic techniques did not, however, compromise his oriental affinities....

Article

Turkish, 19th century, male.

Born 19th century, in Constantinople.

Painter.

Ahmet-Aly was a pupil of Gustave Boulanger and Gérôme, and worked in Paris in 1870.

1867, Universal Exposition, Paris

1869, Salon of the French Academy, Paris

1870, Salon of the French Academy, Paris

1873, exhibit of fine arts at the School of Industry (Mekteb-I Sanayi), Military Academy, Istanbul...

Article

Lebanese, 19th century, male.

Painter. Religious subjects, portraits.

Little is known of this painter, other than that he was also a sculptor and physician reputed to have been taught painting by an Italian Orientalist painter who lived north of Beirut during the final two decades of the 19th century. Ibraim Al-Georr produced portraits of leading personalities of his day in a style that was meticulously detailed, but somehow hesitant to the point of being almost naive....

Article

S. J. Vernoit

[Şeker Ahmet Pasha]

(b Üsküdar, Istanbul, 1841; d Istanbul, 1907).

Turkish painter. In 1859 he became an assistant teacher of painting at the Military Medical High School in Istanbul. In 1864 Sultan Abdülaziz (reg 1861–76) sent him to Paris where, after a preparatory education at a special Ottoman school, he studied painting in the studio of Gustave Boulanger and then under Jean-Léon Gérôme at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Ahmet Ali was also instrumental in the acquisition of paintings from France for the Ottoman court. After nearly eight years of studies in Paris, he stayed in Rome for a year before returning to Istanbul, where he resumed his work at the Military Medical High School. In 1873 he organized in Istanbul the first group exhibition of paintings by Turkish and foreign artists to be held in Turkey. He was later appointed master of ceremonies at the Ottoman court and by the time of his death had risen to the office of intendant of the palace. His paintings were influenced by European art. They include landscapes, such as ...

Article

[Mihr ‛Alī]

(fl c. 1795–1830).

Persian painter. He produced at least ten full-size oil paintings of the Qajar monarch Fath ‛Ali Shah (reg 1797–1834). One of the earliest (1797–8; Calcutta, Victoria Mem. Hall), a portrait of him kneeling on a carpet, was probably sent as a present to the amirs of Sind in 1800. Two fine portraits (1803–4 and 1804–5) were painted for the Hall of the Marble Throne in the Gulistan Palace, Tehran, and a third, of the King enthroned (undated; Versailles, Château), was sent to Napoleon. These early portraits show Fath ‛Ali Shah with a squat neck and round face, but Mihr ‛Ali’s drawings improved in the first decade of the 19th century and later portraits show the King with more flattering proportions. These later paintings include portraits of the King standing (1809–10; St Petersburg, Hermitage), kneeling and holding a mace (1813–14; St Petersburg, Hermitage), and a third with the date obliterated (London, B. W. Robinson priv. col.). Mihr ‛Ali’s finest portrait, and perhaps the finest ...

Article

Syrian, 20th century, male.

Born 1934, in Hama.

Painter. Figures, scenes with figures. Stage sets.

Symbolism.

Group of Ten.

Khouzayma Alwani trained at the academy of fine art in Rome in 1957 and received his diploma as a theatre artist in 1964. In 1973, he was awarded another diploma, this time from the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. He has been Professor at the school of fine arts in Damascus since ...

Article

Turkish, 20th century, male.

Active also active in France.

Born 6 October 1920, in Istanbul.

Painter.

Hakki Anli was a student at Istanbul’s school of fine art until 1942, moving to Paris in 1946. His early work was of the realist genre, but he was later influenced by Picasso’s cubist art and abstract art. His painting was thus solidly based on a cubist infrastructure but gradually became freer in time....

Article

M. N. Sokolov

(Konstantinovich)

(b Feodosiya [now Kaffa], July 29, 1817; d Feodosiya, June 2, 1900).

Russian painter of Armenian descent. The son of an Armenian merchant, throughout his life he kept his links with the ancient traditions of Armenian Christian culture. He studied at the Academy of Arts, St Petersburg, in 1833–7 under Maksim Vorob’yov (1787–1855), a prominent Russian landscape painter of the Romantic period. From 1845 Ayvazovsky worked predominantly in Feodosiya, an ancient city in the Eastern Crimea. He travelled widely in Russia and Europe, the Near East, Africa and America. Ayvazovsky’s first significant paintings testify to his attentive assimilation of the canons of Romantic seascape painting, going back to Claude Lorrain, as well as the influence of Vorob’yov and the late works of Sil’vestr Shchedrin. In Ayvazovsky’s early works the accurate rendering of views is combined with a classicist rationality of composition, as in View of the Seashore in the Environs of St Petersburg (1835; Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.)

A purely Romantic view of the world and exaltation in the face of the boundless, eternally changing sea find mature expression in the works of the 1840s, when Ayvazovsky gained renown throughout Europe. A number of foreign academies made him an honorary member, and J. M. W. Turner wrote an enthusiastic ode in honour of one of his pictures. The best-known work of this period is the ...

Article

[Mīrzā Bābā]

(fl c. 1795–1830).

Persian painter. Reportedly a native of Isfahan, he was employed by the Qajar family at Astarabad, as indicated by a signed drawing of a dragon and phoenix (1788–9; ex-Pozzi priv. col.). After Agha Muhammad (reg 1779–97) ascended the throne, Mirza Baba worked at the Qajar court in Tehran in a wide variety of materials, techniques and scales. His oil portrait (1789–90; Tehran, Nigaristan Mus.) of the Sasanian king Hurmuzd IV (reg ad 579–90) probably belonged to a series of historical portraits, for Mirza Baba painted a second series a decade later. One of the two surviving paintings from the later series (Tehran, A. H. Ibtihaj priv. col.) shows the Saljuq ruler Malikshah (reg 1072–92) with his two ministers. Other early works by Mirza Baba include a still-life with pomegranates, watermelon and flowers (?1793–4; Tehran, Nigaristan Mus.) and an arched panel showing Shirin Visiting Farhad as He Carves Mt Bisitun...

Article

Armenian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 1860, in Constantinople; died 1925.

Painter. Landscapes, interiors.

Aram Bakalian was a pupil of P. and A. Laurens in Paris. He exhibited at the Salon d’Automne (1907), the Salon des Indépendants (1926), and the Salon des Artistes Français (...

Article

British, 19th century, male.

Born 26 March 1809, in Kentish Town, London; died 13 September 1854, at sea, between Malta and Marseilles.

Painter, watercolourist, engraver, draughtsman, writer. Genre scenes, landscapes with figures, landscapes, topographical views.

Orientalism.

William Henry Bartlett is thought to have exhibited at the Royal Academy ...

Article

Turkish, 20th century, male.

Active in France since 1947.

Born 2 April 1923, in Malatya.

Painter.

Kemal Bastuji studied classical philology before moving to France. His painting develops the symbolism of ritual images of Asia Minor, merging it with the great universal myths.

The first group exhibition at which he exhibited was held in ...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 11 September 1819, in Étampes (Essonne); died 20 September 1891, in Asnières (Hauts-de-Seine).

Painter, lithographer. Landscapes with figures, still-lifes.

Orientalism.

A pupil of Rémon at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. Gave up his studies in 1841 after competing unsuccessfully for the Prix de Rome. Nevertheless, he exhibited for the first time at the Salon of 1843, where he was well received by the public. His work found sufficient favour with his artist peers that the journal ...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 7 October 1797, in Paris; died 14 September 1871, in Paris.

Painter, draughtsman. Religious subjects, landscapes, landscapes with figures, architectural views. Stage sets, church decoration.

Barbizon School.

A pupil of Bidauld, Ingres and Girodet-Trioson at the École des Beaux-Arts, Paris, François Bertin exhibited at the salon quite regularly from 1827 to 1853. He was the son of the founder of the ...

Article

Lebanese, 20th century, male.

Active also active in France.

Painter. Figures, landscapes, seascapes, still-lifes.

Maurice Bonfils’ Post-Impressionist landscapes are often a nostalgic throwback to his time in Lebanon. At times, not least in his still-lifes, there is the merest suggestion of Cubist geometricisation. He shows his work at group exhibitions in Lebanon and in France, including the Paris Salon d’Automne (...

Article

British, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 27 November 1821, in Paris, to English parents; died 14 May 1906, in Oakland Battle, USA.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman. Landscapes.

Brabazon studied briefly under James D'Egville and Alfred Downing Fripp but was largely self-taught. He travelled to Spain, Italy, Egypt, the Indies and France, bringing back many landscapes in watercolour. He also made many copies of the masters during his travels. He became a member of the New English Art Club in 1891. He exhibited his work in London, particularly from 1865 until 1870....