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Article

Lebanese, 19th century, male.

Painter. Religious subjects, portraits.

Little is known of this painter, other than that he was also a sculptor and physician reputed to have been taught painting by an Italian Orientalist painter who lived north of Beirut during the final two decades of the 19th century. Ibraim Al-Georr produced portraits of leading personalities of his day in a style that was meticulously detailed, but somehow hesitant to the point of being almost naive....

Article

M. N. Sokolov

(Konstantinovich)

(b Feodosiya [now Kaffa], July 29, 1817; d Feodosiya, June 2, 1900).

Russian painter of Armenian descent. The son of an Armenian merchant, throughout his life he kept his links with the ancient traditions of Armenian Christian culture. He studied at the Academy of Arts, St Petersburg, in 1833–7 under Maksim Vorob’yov (1787–1855), a prominent Russian landscape painter of the Romantic period. From 1845 Ayvazovsky worked predominantly in Feodosiya, an ancient city in the Eastern Crimea. He travelled widely in Russia and Europe, the Near East, Africa and America. Ayvazovsky’s first significant paintings testify to his attentive assimilation of the canons of Romantic seascape painting, going back to Claude Lorrain, as well as the influence of Vorob’yov and the late works of Sil’vestr Shchedrin. In Ayvazovsky’s early works the accurate rendering of views is combined with a classicist rationality of composition, as in View of the Seashore in the Environs of St Petersburg (1835; Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.)

A purely Romantic view of the world and exaltation in the face of the boundless, eternally changing sea find mature expression in the works of the 1840s, when Ayvazovsky gained renown throughout Europe. A number of foreign academies made him an honorary member, and J. M. W. Turner wrote an enthusiastic ode in honour of one of his pictures. The best-known work of this period is the ...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 7 October 1797, in Paris; died 14 September 1871, in Paris.

Painter, draughtsman. Religious subjects, landscapes, landscapes with figures, architectural views. Stage sets, church decoration.

Barbizon School.

A pupil of Bidauld, Ingres and Girodet-Trioson at the École des Beaux-Arts, Paris, François Bertin exhibited at the salon quite regularly from 1827 to 1853. He was the son of the founder of the ...

Article

British, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 13 May 1867, in Bruges, Belgium, to English parents; died 11 June 1956, in Ditchling.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, engraver, lithographer, illustrator. Religious subjects, figure compositions, figures, local scenes (carnival), rustic scenes, urban landscapes, architectural views, urban views, harbour scenes, seascapes...

Article

Lebanese, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1852, in Ghosta; died 1930.

Painter. Religious subjects, portraits.

In 1870, aged eighteen, he left for Rome, where he remained for five years and where he studied at the institute of fine arts of the court painter Roberto Bompiani. During his stay, he visited museums and collections, learning to appreciate Raphael, Michelangelo, Titian and so on. He exhibited in Paris, during the Exposition Universelle of ...

Article

Lebanese, 19th century, male.

Born in Dlebta (Kesruan); died 1873.

Painter. Religious subjects, portraits.

The nephew of Moussa Dib, he learned to paint with his uncle and above all with the Italian painter Constantin Giusti.

His work can still be seen in a number of religious buildings, including, among others, ...

Article

Lebanese, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born in Dlebta (Kesruan); died 1826.

Painter. Religious subjects, portraits.

The uncle of Kenaan Dib, in 1777, he became Superior of the monastery of Our Lady of the Fields (Dayr Saydat al Haqlé).

In a painting in the chapel of the Convent of the Saviour, he illustrated a miracle which took place in ...

Article

Turkish, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1842, in Constantinople; died 24 February 1910, in Constantinople.

Painter. Religious subjects, genre scenes, portraits.

Osman Hamdi Bey was the son of the Grand Vizir Müsir Ethern Pacha. He was sent to Paris to study from 1857 to 1869...

Article

S. J. Vernoit

[Muḥammad Ḥasan Khān]

(fl c. 1800–40).

Persian painter. He signed a number of large oil paintings (Tehran, Nigaristan Mus.; ex-Amery priv. col.), including two life-size portraits of princes and a painting of Shaykh San‛an and the Christian Maiden. Other paintings that can be attributed to the artist on stylistic grounds include a third portrait of a prince in the same collection and two paintings of women (Tbilisi, Mus. A. Georg.). His style is characterized by a soft rendering of features, fondness for reddish brown and a hallmark vase of flowers. He also produced miniature paintings in the form of monochrome portraits. European travellers in Tehran in the 19th century erroneously attributed to him the large mural in the Nigaristan Palace depicting the court of the Qajar monarch Fath ‛Ali Shah (reg 1797–1834), but this painting is now considered the work of ‛Abdallah Khan.

S. Y. Amiranashvili: Iranskaya stankovaya zhivopis’ [Iranian wall painting] (Tbilisi, 1940)...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 4 January 1810, in Nancy; died 26 March 1881, in Algiers.

Painter (gouache), watercolourist, pastellist, lithographer, draughtsman. Genre scenes, landscapes, landscapes with figures, seascapes, church interiors.

Jules Achille Noël studied under Cherioux in Brest (Brittany) before moving to Paris. He debuted at the Salon in 1840 and continued exhibiting there until 1879, winning a third-class medal in 1853....

Article

American, 19th–20th century, male.

Active from 1891 in France.

Born 21 June 1859, in Pittsburgh; died 25 May 1937, in Paris.

Painter, illustrator, pastellist, watercolourist, engraver, photographer. Religious subjects, genre scenes, harbour views, landscapes, urban landscapes, seascapes, animals.

Symbolism.

Tanner’s father was the minister of the African Methodist Episcopal Church in Pittsburgh, then in Philadelphia from 1866, and became Superintendent of his Church in 1888. His mother, Sarah Miller, had escaped slavery during her childhood, getting to Pittsburgh through the network called the Underground Railway. She set up a school in her own house for the children of the community. Tanner studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts from 1880 to 1882 under Thomas Eakins (Eakins did a portrait of Tanner in 1900). He became an illustrator, notably for ...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 14 June 1861, in Lyons; died 27 April 1943, in Treignac.

Painter, illustrator, lithographer, watercolourist. Religious subjects, allegorical subjects, figures, portraits, genre scenes, landscapes, waterscapes, seascapes. Murals, designs for tapestries.

Edmond Tapissier studied under Jean-Baptiste Chatigny in Lyons, and under Alexandre Cabanel and Fernand Cormon at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. He spent time in St Petersburg and then visited Italy, Greece and the Middle East. Tapissier was appointed as a naval painter in ...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 30 June 1789, in Paris; died 17 January 1863, in Paris.

Painter, lithographer. Religious subjects, military subjects, military portraits, battles, horse racing scenes, horses.

Horace Vernet was born in the apartments his family occupied in the Louvre palace. In 1792, the Vernets were driven from their home by the revolutionary armies. Like his father Carle, Horace Vernet showed extraordinary talent already as a child earning a living by drawing and painting from a very early age. He contributed drawings to the ...