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Marco Carminati

(b Stradella, Pavia, 1723; d Parma, 1803).

Italian painter, also active in France . He studied painting in Florence under the Baroque fresco painter Vincenzo Meucci (1694–1766). He then went to Parma, where he won the esteem of Duke Philip, the Bourbon ruler of Parma, and the protection of Philip’s minister, Guillaume Du Tillot, who made Baldrighi court artist and sent him to Paris for further training, hoping thereby to bring refined French taste to the court of Parma. The painter was able to study and work with artists such as François Boucher, Maurice-Quentin de La Tour, Jean-Marc Nattier, Jean-Etienne Liotard and Jean-Baptiste Perroneau. Letters between Du Tillot and the banker Claude Bonnet, who represented the interests of the Parma court in Paris, have proved a rich source of information for Baldrighi’s stay in Paris, and indeed one of the artist’s first works was a portrait of Mme Bonnet (1752), followed a year later by the portrait of ...

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[Buoneri, Francesco]

(fl c. Rome, 1610–20).

Painter active in Italy. His nationality is not known. He was a follower of Caravaggio, and his rare works reveal a highly original and idiosyncratic response to that artist’s naturalism. Agostino Tassi mentioned him as involved, with several French artists, in the decoration of the Villa Lante at Bagnaia between 1613 and 1615, and Giulio Mancini noted a ‘Francesco detto Cecco del Caravaggio’ who was close to Caravaggio.

Richard Symonds, who visited Rome in 1650, mentioned that the model for Caravaggio’s Amore vincitore (Berlin, Alte N.G.) was one ‘Checco da Caravaggio’, ‘his owne boy or servant that laid with him’ (quoted Papi, 1992). The central work in Cecco’s oeuvre is Christ Driving the Money-changers from the Temple (Berlin, Alte N.G.), which Longhi (1943) identified as the work, formerly in the collection of Vicenzo Giustiniani, that had been referred to in G. M. Sylos’s Pinacotheca sive Romana pictura et scultura...

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(b Venice, 1637; d Venice, ?1712).

Italian painter. He trained first with Matteo Ponzoni, then with Sebastiano Mazzoni; Mazzoni encouraged the development of a Baroque style, but Celesti was also attracted by the naturalism of the tenebrists. The first known works by Celesti are mature in style, and he had already achieved considerable fame in Venice when the Doge Alvise Contarini honoured him with the title of Cavaliere in 1681. The complexity of his sources is evident in two canvases, Moses Destroying the Golden Calf and Moses Chastising the Hebrew People for their Idolatry, both painted c. 1681 for the Palazzo Ducale, Venice, and signed Cavaliere; they are influenced by Luca Giordano and by the narrative techniques of Jacopo Tintoretto. The most distinguished works of Celesti’s early period are two large lunettes that show three scenes: Benedict III Visiting St Zacharias, A Doge Presented with the Body of a Saint, and the Virtues Surrounding a Doge Holding the Model of St Zacharias...

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Francesco Frangi

[Enrico, Antonio d’; il Tanzio]

(b Riale d’Alagna, 1575–80; d 1632–3).

Italian painter. He is best known for his dramatic oil paintings executed in a unique style of Caravaggesque realism modified by the elegance of Lombard Late Mannerism. He also adopted elements of a robust and unsophisticated realism from Piedmontese art, as is evident in his frescoes for the sacromonte at Varallo (see Varallo, Sacro Monte, §2). His drawings are in the highly refined and meticulously finished technique associated with Renaissance draughtsmanship.

Tanzio’s family had lived at Varallo since 1586, and he had two brothers who were also artists: the fresco painter Melchiorre d’Enrico, with whom he may have trained, and the sculptor and architect Giovanni d’Enrico (c. 1560–1644). On 12 February 1600 a safe conduct was issued to Melchiorre and Tanzio to leave Valsesia to visit Rome for the Holy Year. Tanzio’s first biographer, Cotta, wrote that the artist studied ‘in the Academies of Rome’ and that in ...

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Mimi Cazort

Italian family of artists. The work of the brothers (1) Ubaldo Gandolfi and (2) Gaetano Gandolfi and of the latter’s son, (3) Mauro Gandolfi, reflects the transition from late Bolognese Baroque through Neo-classicism and into early Italian Romanticism. During their period of collective productivity, from c. 1760 to c. 1820, the Gandolfi produced paintings, frescoes, drawings, sculptures and prints. Their drawings (examples by all three artists, Venice, Fond. Cini) made an outstanding contribution to the great figurative tradition of Bolognese draughtsmanship that had begun with the Carracci. Their prolific output and their activity as teachers gave them considerable influence throughout northern Italy, except in Venice. One of Ubaldo’s five children, Giovanni Battista Gandolfi (b 1762), trained at the Accademia Clementina, Bologna, but apart from a vault fresco signed and dated 1798 in the church of S Francesco in Bagnacavallo nothing is known of his adult career. A drawing (Paris, Fond. Custodia, Inst. Néer.) is signed ...

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Juan J. Luna

Spanish family of artists. Pablo González Velázquez (1664–1727) was an Andalusian sculptor who worked in the Baroque style and in 1702 settled in Madrid, where his three sons were born. There were numerous collaborations between the sons. (1) Luis González Velázquez and (2) Alejandro González Velázquez worked together in Madrid on the chapel of S Teresa (1737–9) in the church of S José, the church of the convent of El Sacramento, the church of El Salvador and the church of the Carmelitas Descalzas; in La Puebla de Montalbán, near Toledo, they worked together on the Ermita de la Virgen de la Soledad (1741–2), for which they executed the main altarpiece and pendentive paintings of Esther, Judith, Rachel and Abigail. The two also often undertook stage designs for the theatre in the Palacio del Buen Retiro in Madrid. They collaborated with their younger brother (3) ...

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Paul Hogarth

(b Kotagiri, Madras, India, March 13, 1836; d London, Nov 25, 1875).

English painter and illustrator. He played a leading role in the renaissance of wood-engraved illustration during the so-called golden decade of English book illustration (c. 1860–75), when a new school of artists overcame the limitations of the medium. Deeply influenced by the idealism of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, he imbued both his paintings and drawings with a haunting blend of poetic realism. He was the fourth son of Captain John Michael Houghton (1797–1874), who served in the East India Company’s Marine as a draughtsman.

Houghton was admitted to the Royal Academy Schools, London, in 1854 but did not pass further than the Life School. He received additional training at J. M. Leigh’s academy and its convivial corollary, the Langham Artists’ Society, which was then a forcing-house for young impoverished painters who wished to have a foot in both publishing and the fine arts. There, with older artists such as Charles Keene and John Tenniel, he learnt to run the race against time with a set weekly subject. Keene, already a well-known contributor to ...

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Christian Lenz

(b Elberfeld, Dec 24, 1837; d Rome, July 5, 1887).

German painter, draughtsman and sculptor. Marées was a leading representative of the later 19th-century return to Renaissance models, especially the use of figure painting in large-scale decorative schemes.

He studied in Berlin (1853–5), first at the Akademie and then in the studio of the equestrian painter Carl Steffeck. The historical and military scenes of Adolph Menzel were also an important influence. Apart from a few portraits and a number of small landscapes, Marées concentrated mainly on equestrian and military pictures in the Berlin tradition. He continued to paint pictures of this kind even after moving, in 1857, to Munich, where he remained until 1864: for example Ulans on the March (1859; Munich, Neue Pin.). In the early 1860s a marked Dutch influence, particularly that of Rembrandt, became apparent in Marées’s work, and it is possible that he visited the Netherlands during this period. The self-portraits, such as that of ...

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Mimi Cazort

In 

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Fabio Bisogni

(b Siena, 1612; d Rome, 1676).

Italian painter, draughtsman and printmaker. His early art drew on a variety of sources, which included the naturalism of Rutilio Manetti and Francesco Rustici, the descriptive realism of the engraver Giuliano Periccioli (d 1646) and the Baroque of Raffaelle Vanni. Mei’s interests even embraced 16th-century Sienese art. This stylistic variety is evident in his first known works, such as a bier (Casole d’Elsa, Collegiata), three signed miniatures in the Libro dei leoni (1634; Siena, Pal. Piccolomini, Archv Stato) and frescoes of scenes from the Life of St Bernard (1639; Siena, oratory of S Bernardino). His experimental approach is also displayed in such works as the Annunciation (Siena, Mus. Semin. Montarioso), which may be dated between the mid-1630s and the early 1640s. Mei’s early maturity is marked by a conscious return to the naturalism of Manetti, enriched with a Baroque pathos and soft, fluid brushwork, as in the ...

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Federica Lamera

(b Genoa, 1632; d Piacenza, 1698).

Italian painter. He was a pupil in Genoa of Giovanni Andrea de’ Ferrari and perhaps also of Giulio Benso, from whom he acquired an inclination towards narrative and naturalism. Later he entered the workshop of Valerio Castello. About 1651 Merano went to Parma to study the works of Correggio and Parmigianino. Here he painted two oval frescoes of St Lucy and St Apollonia (both Parma, Santa Croce). These first works, stylistically still immature, were strongly influenced by 16th-century Emilian painters, especially Girolamo Bedoli Mazzola, as well as by Castello.

Probably in 1658 Merano returned to Genoa. Shortly afterwards he received the prestigious commission to paint a large lunette of the Massacre of the Innocents in the Church of Il Gesù, Genoa. Here his style is freer and more personal, revealing a close study of the works of Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione and of Rubens, whose sumptuous theatricality in particular he absorbed....

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Richard C. Green

(b Venice, Jan 21, 1655; d Venice, Feb 3, 1704).

Italian painter and draughtsman. He was the son of the painter Giovanni Molinari (1633–87) and studied in Venice with Antonio Zanchi. His style had its origins in the naturalism and tenebrism of Neapolitan painting, introduced to Venice in the mid-17th century. Although his work always retained some traces of this naturalism, the typically violent subject-matter and intensity of the Neapolitan style were considerably tempered by the addition of classicizing elements and of rich, glowing colours. By the 1680s Molinari had developed his characteristic manner of depicting figures in poses of extreme torsion and vigorous movement, arranged in graceful compositions. His subject-matter included episodes from the Old and New Testaments, antiquity and Classical mythology. His classical idiom was most pronounced in his large canvases painted for churches, such as the Feeding of the Five Thousand (1690; Venice, S Pantalon) and the Death of Uzzah (c. 1695; Murano, S Maria degli Angeli). In the ...

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Raffaella Bentivoglio Ravasio and Daniela Campanelli

(b Capodrise, nr Caserta, May 12, 1723; d Naples, Jan 10, 1806).

Italian painter and draughtsman. His training was dependent on the late style of Solimena, which Mondo applied to a re-evaluation of Mattia Preti’s tenebrism and Baroque solidity. However, already in his early work Mondo achieved a pictorial style very close to the compositional freedom of Giordano. Mondo’s early works include the canvases (e.g. St Mark, signed and dated 1747) in S Andrea at Capodrise (Spinosa, 1970, p. 86, no. 13) as well as Coriolanus (early 1740s; Naples, Corradini priv. col., see 1979–80 exh. cat., no. 130), which refers to the work of both Solimena and Giordano.

During the 1760s and 1770s Mondo developed small-format compositions, generally with secular subjects. These were characterized by a more spontaneous vision of reality and were thus closer to the rocailles and capriccios fashionable at that time. Notable among these canvases is Mercury Appearing to Dido (Naples, Perrone Capano priv. col.), which is one of the masterpieces of late 18th-century Neapolitan art on account of its Rococo preciosity and chromatic refinement. The same stylistic trend can be identified in the eight canvases painted for the church of the Annunziata at Marcianise and dating from the late 1780s. From these paintings it can be seen that, even in the production of sacred works, commissioned by a patron with a conservative taste that was linked to the triumphant and devotional figurative models popular at court, Mondo provides a pastoral and Arcadian interpretation of the religious subject, using the free pictorialism of his secular work. Another example can be found in the altarpiece for the confraternity of the Rosario chapel, close to the church of the S Redentore at Caserta, representing the ...

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Manuela B. Mena Marqués

(b Seville, bapt Jan 1, 1618; d Seville, March 28, 1682).

Spanish painter and draughtsman. He combined 17th-century realism with a taste for serene, sweet and sentimental beauty. His large output of religious works included numerous treatments of the Immaculate Conception, and he was also one of the greatest portrait painters of his time. However, his fame abroad was established most especially by his genre pictures of children. His works were highly prized by collectors, particularly in the 18th century, and his painting, which was well known in other European countries, particularly England and France, served as an example to such artists as Gainsborough, Reynolds and Greuze.

Born in the last days of 1617, he was the youngest child of Gaspar Esteban of Seville, a barber-surgeon, and María Pérez, but adopted the surname of his maternal grandmother, Elvira Murillo, and rarely signed or used that of his father. The family enjoyed a degree of social status and wealth and in 1607...

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John J. Chvostal

(b Venice, c. 1579; d Venice, June 16, 1620).

Italian painter. He is best known for his jewel-like paintings representing sacred and secular themes, which combine a delicate technique inspired by Adam Elsheimer with a note of observed realism owed to Caravaggio. He also painted altarpieces and worked in fresco.

By 1598 Saraceni had moved from Venice to Rome, where he studied with Camillo Mariani (1556–1611), a minor artist from Vicenza (Baglione). While the composition and modest scale of Saraceni’s earliest extant work, Perseus and Andromeda (c. 1598–1600; Dijon, Mus. B.-A.), are much indebted to the Late Mannerist style of the Cavaliere d’Arpino, the figure types and technique are distinctly his own and appear in his later paintings. The forms are softly modelled with fine brushwork. Andromeda’s elongated figure, limber pose, smooth flesh and unindividualized anatomy appear again in Saraceni’s slightly later painting of Paradise (New York, Met.). Delicately tapered fingers, round, high foreheads and small facial features are also characteristic of his style. His early Roman works reflect many sources: paintings by Titian, Tintoretto, Veronese, whose art he had absorbed in Venice, and by Adam Elsheimer, whose paintings he would have seen in Rome, and whose influence helped to shape the composition of the ...