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Article

Margo Machida

(b New York, Aug 16, 1949).

American printmaker and installation artist. Born and raised in New York City, Arai, a third-generation Japanese American printmaker, mixed-media artist, public artist and cultural activist, studied art at the Philadelphia College of Art and The Printmaking Workshop in New York. Since the 1970s, her diverse projects have ranged from individual works to large-scale public commissions (see Public art in the 21st century). She has designed permanent public works, including an interior mural commemorating the African burial ground in lower Manhattan and an outdoor mural for Philadelphia’s Chinatown. Other works include Wall of Respect for Women (1974), a mural on New York’s Lower East Side, which was a collaboration between Arai and women from the local community. Her art has been exhibited in such venues as the Bronx Museum of the Arts, the Whitney Museum of American Art, the Museum of Modern Art, International Center for Photography, P.S.1 Museum, the Brooklyn Museum, the Museum of Contemporary Hispanic Art, all New York and the Library of Congress, Washington, DC. She is the recipient of awards and fellowships from National Endowment for the Arts, New York Foundation for the Arts, and Joan Mitchell Foundation....

Article

Anne K. Swartz

(Francisca )

(b East Los Angeles, CA, Sept 20, 1946).

American muralist, activist and teacher. Born to Mexican–American parents, Baca is recognized as one of the leading muralists in the USA. She was involved from a young age in activism, including the Chicano Movement, the antiwar protest and Women’s Liberation. She studied art at California State University, Northridge, where she received Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees. Baca started teaching art in 1970 in East Los Angeles for the Los Angeles Department of Recreation and Parks and became interested in the ways murals could involve youth, allowing them to express their experiences. She founded the City of Los Angeles Mural Program in 1974, which evolved into the Social and Public Resource Center, a community arts organization, where she served as artistic director. She held five summer mural workshops from 1976 through 1983 for teenagers and community artists to help her paint a huge mural on the ethnic history of Los Angeles, called the ...

Article

American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1874, in Providence (Rhode Island); died 25 June 1912, in New York.

Sculptor.

Oscar Lenz studied at the Rhode Island art school in Providence, at the Art Students League in New York, and finally in Paris. His works include the ornamental sculptures on the new bridge in Buffalo and sculptures at the Pennsylvania-New York railway station....

Article

Bailey Van Hook

(b Bergen Heights, NJ, June 10, 1874; d Philadelphia, PA, Feb 25, 1961).

American painter, illustrator, stained-glass artist and author. Although she worked as an illustrator early on, Oakley is remembered as a muralist. Oakley attended the Art Students League, New York, Académie Montparnasse, Paris, and the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia, but, most importantly, a class in illustration with Howard Pyle at the Drexel Institute, Philadelphia. Pyle teamed her together with Jessie Willcox Smith (1863–1935) to illustrate an edition of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s Evangeline (1897). Smith and Oakley and another illustrator, Elizabeth Shippen Green (1871–1954), rented adjoining studios in Philadelphia and subsequently lived together in a supportive camaraderie until Green’s marriage in 1911. During her brief career as an illustrator, Oakley completed over 100 illustrations, mostly for novels and short stories.

In 1900 she created a stained-glass window on speculation, which led to a major commission for stained-glass windows, mural decoration and a mosaic altarpiece for a church in Manhattan. That project brought her to the attention of architect Joseph Huston (...

Article

Harriet F. Senie

Objects created to remind viewers of specific individuals or events (see also Public monument). At its inception, the United States faced fundamental questions of what the new nation should commemorate and what forms would be appropriate for its new form of government: democracy. Primary subjects were presidents as well as military leaders and wars that functioned as expressions of national values. Often realized long after their subject had died or ended, monuments frequently reflected the time in which they were actually built. As societal values changed, so did the form and emphasis of monuments.

National memorials to the most influential presidents, George Washington, Abraham Lincoln and Franklin Delano Roosevelt include an obelisk, a sculpture housed in a temple and a large complex defined by a series of outdoor spaces dedicated to key aspects of a presidency.

Initially there were no American sculptors capable of realizing a monumental project to George Washington (...

Article

Deborah F. Pokinski

(Lewis)

(b Stockbridge, MA, July 29, 1862; d Clifton Springs, NY, Dec 2, 1929).

American painter and muralist. Reid attended the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (1880–84), then moved to New York, studying briefly at the Art Students League. In 1885 he went to Paris, studying at the Académie Julian where he received training as a muralist under Gustave(-Clarence-Rodolphe) Boulanger and Jules(-Joseph) Lefebvre. In 1889 he returned to New York and began painting portraits and teaching at the Art Students League (1893–6).

Decorative murals—typically idealized, allegorical figure compositions—were in great demand during the era of Beaux-Arts architectural design. Reid created a number of them, including at the Chicago World’s Columbian Exposition in 1893 and in the Library of Congress, as well as for hotels, churches and even an ocean liner.

By the early 1890s Reid began adopting Impressionist qualities to define his signature theme—attractive young women in light, gauzy dresses, out of doors, surrounded by flowers. Images of upper-class women, usually isolated and pensive, were among the most popular subjects of turn-of-the-century American painters, although Reid rejected the more conventional interior settings of his peers for light filled exteriors and generally even-toned, pastel colours. His ribbon-like strokes of paint both suggested dappled sunlight and flattened his forms. As a result, in works such as ...

Article

Paul J. Karlstrom

(b Chico, CA, May 1, 1860; d Berkeley, CA, c. Aug 4, 1935).

American sculptor. Speech and hearing impaired from shortly before his 4th birthday, he nonetheless enjoyed a productive and successful career as a sculptor. With works such as Baseball Player (1889; San Francisco, CA, Golden Gate Park), Bear Hunt (1892; Fremont, CA, CA Sch. Deaf) and (California) Admission Day Monument (1897; San Francisco, CA, Market, Post and Montgomery Streets), he established himself as a designer of major monuments now regarded as comprising the greatest single legacy of public art in the San Francisco Bay area. Described in his day as the Father of Sculpture on the Pacific Coast, he was the first California-born sculptor to receive international recognition. His reputation was such that in 1900, despite his disabilities, he was appointed Professor of Sculpture at the Mark Hopkins Institute of Art by the Regents of the University of California (the school was at the time part of UC). Six years earlier, he had founded the first department of modelling at MHIA, introducing live nude models into the classroom....

Article

Ronald J. Onorato

(b Quebec, May 11, 1944).

American sculptor of Canadian birth. Educated in Montreal and in New York City, where he attended the Brooklyn Museum Art School, Hunter College, and received a BS from New York University in 1969. Trakas created site-specific landscape installations in America and Europe from the 1970s. He has received numerous awards including NEA and Guggenheim fellowships and the American Academy of Arts and Letters Merit Award for Sculpture and has taught at Cooper Union and Yale University. Trakas moved to the USA in 1963 and since his earliest completed outdoor works, like Rock River Union (1976), he has been a leading proponent of hand-constructed environments. His work shared aspects of scale, audience participation and architectural form with such artists as Alice Aycock, Mary Miss, Richard Fleischner and Siah Armajani. They all extended the tradition of earlier, less accessible earthworks into the realm of more approachable, often urban, spaces that a viewer can engage spatially as well as understand for their symbolic and narrative content. Trakas’s own projects were primarily constructed of welded steel with wood and stone elements, sometimes recycled from the sites themselves....

Article

American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 22 or 26 August 1836, in Bedford (Ohio); died 11 October 1918.

Painter. Portraits, genre scenes.

Art Club of Cleveland, Society of Cleveland Artists, Cleveland Brush and Palette Club.

Archibald Willard, who enjoyed drawing from childhood, was substantially self-taught. He received two weeks of instruction at age 17 from an unidentified portrait artist travelling through Bedford, and a few weeks of instruction from Joseph Oriel Eaton in New York in ...