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Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 1798, in Paris.

Painter, picture dealer. Panoramas.

Charles Arrowsmith studied with Daguerre and painted dioramas alongside him. He exhibited in Paris in 1827, in Douai in 1829, and at the Royal Academy in London in 1830. He was responsible for promoting English watercolourists and introducing them and also Constable to a broader public in France....

Article

Molly K. Dorkin

Paid adviser employed by collectors to recommend and facilitate the purchase of works of art. There is a long history of recruitment of art experts by wealthy patrons for advisery purposes. In the 18th century art historians such as Johann Joachim Winckelmann were actively advising leading collectors like ...

Article

British collector of American birth. He was a member of a wealthy family whose fortune came from fur trading; he became interested in art and antiquity during his appointment as American Minister in Rome (1882–5), rapidly acquiring a fine collection of ancient and Renaissance sculpture. He transferred the collection to England when his term as minister ended, dividing it between his country houses at ...

Article

Molly K. Dorkin

Prior to the 20th century, the attribution of works of art was not governed by rigid regulations, and art dealers and auctioneers assigned attributions based purely on aesthetic grounds. Works were attributed to the artist whose manner they most closely resembled, but they were not further distinguished on the basis of quality; as a result, many paintings purchased as Renaissance masterpieces in the 18th or 19th century have since been downgraded to studio works or even much later pastiches....

Article

American, 19th century, male.

Born 21 February 1791, in New Haven (Connecticut); died 1858, in New Haven.

Sculptor.

Originally an art dealer, Hezekiah Augur did not start sculpting until after a bankruptcy. His work was noted and appreciated from the start and among his works is a bust of Washington. He was a honorary member of the Academy of Fine Arts in New York....

Article

American, 19th century, male.

Born 17 March 1822, in New York; died 11 August 1904, in New York.

Engraver.

When he became a publisher and art dealer in 1865, Samuel Putnam Avery completely gave up wood-engraving and confined himself to burin engraving.

Article

Italian, 19th century, male.

Active in Livorno (Tuscany).

Died after 1873.

Sculptor, art dealer.

Torello Bacci produced the monument to his father at the Santa Croce convent in Florence and the statue of Pier Capponi in a portico at the Uffizi Gallery.

Article

British, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1804, in London.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman. Architectural views, landscapes.

Joseph Barrow was an antique dealer working in London where he exhibited numerous landscapes and architectural views at the Royal Academy from 1789 to 1802 and in 1790 and 1791...

Article

Swiss, 19th century, male.

Born 1787, in Switzerland; died 1857.

Painter (gouache), engraver. Landscapes.

Johann Heinrich Bleuler the Younger was the son of the engraver and gouache painter, Johann Heinrich Bleuler. He was an art dealer and painted Views of the Harz Mountains mentioned around ...

Article

Bonhams  

Molly K. Dorkin

Auction house established in London 1793 by William Charles Bonham, a book dealer (also recorded as Walter Bonham), and George Jones, from a gallery founded by Thomas Dodd (1771–1850), a dealer in antiquarian prints. Bonhams originally specialized in sales of prints in the 18th and 19th centuries, at which time the market was robust. By the 19th century Bonhams was also holding sales of antiques, which were advertised in the London press alongside similar offerings from ...

Article

Simon Pepper

American industrialist and patron of Scottish birth. Aged 11, Andrew Carnegie immigrated with his parents to Allegheny, near Pittsburgh, PA, where he educated himself while working as an office messenger and telegraph operator, before rising to enormous wealth through railroads, oil, and the iron and steel industries. During his lifetime he gave more than $350 million to a variety of social, educational, and cultural causes, the best known being his support for public libraries, which he believed would provide opportunities for self-improvement without ‘any taint of charity’. Here communities had to pay for the building site and the books, and to commit at least 10 per cent of Carnegie’s initial gift in annual support. As Carnegie struggled to give away money—for ‘to die rich was to die disgraced’—music, fine art, archaeology, and technical schools also became beneficiaries, together with programmes for the education of minorities in recognition of civilian heroism and world peace (still a central concern of the Carnegie Foundation)....

Article

Noël Annesley

Auction house founded in London by James Christie (1730–1803). After a few years spent in the navy, James Christie worked as an assistant to an auctioneer named Mr Annesley in Covent Garden, London. He left Annesley in 1763 to set up on his own and in ...

Article

Italian, 19th century, male.

Born 1836, in Rome; died after 1890, in Paris.

Painter. History painting, genre scenes.

Cortazzo was a pupil of Bonnat. He worked in Paris, especially for the art dealer Goupil, who commissioned historical paintings from him.

He received an honourable mention at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in ...

Article

Stephen T. Clarke, Harley Preston and Lin Barton

English family of silversmiths, industrialists, collectors, and patrons, of French origin. The family originated from the town of St Pierre on the Ile d’Oléron off La Rochelle. They arrived in London a few years after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, and between ...

Article

Joseph R. Givens

The sociologist Pierre Bourdieu (1930–2002) developed cultural capital theory as way to examine the influence of intangible resources on the phenomena of social reproduction and social mobility. He described a society of competing classes, arranged in a hierarchy of prestige. The classes are composed of individual agents who attempt to climb the socio-economic ladder by maximizing the use of capital resources, which include both material objects of symbolic value and intangible attributes that imply prestige and power. Bourdieu identified four types of capital: economic, social, symbolic, and cultural. Economic capital represents one’s financial resources, social capital consists of one’s social support system, symbolic capital describes one’s prestige, and cultural capital includes the knowledge, values, and skills that support an understanding of cultural relations and cultural artefacts. The forms of capital are inequitably distributed among classes, and one form of capital can be converted to another. Since the value of capital is defined by social relations within a specific field, agents strategize the best way to leverage their capital for maximum gain of the valued capital within that field....

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in Paris.

Painter.

A.P. Debuire exhibited at the Salon des Artistes Français and at the Société Nationale in Paris from 1889 to 1904. One of his works, an interior, is At the Antique Dealer's.

Article

Molly K. Dorkin

The world’s oldest auction house, founded in Vienna in April 1707 by Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor (reg 1705–11). Originally called the Versatz- und Fragamt zu Wien (‘The Pawn and Query Bureau of Vienna’), the firm moved in 1777 to the site of an old monastery, the Dorotheerkloster, from which the name ‘Dorotheum’ is derived. By the end of the 19th century the premises were outdated, so Emperor Francis-Joseph I (...

Article

Flemish School, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1763, in Tournai; died December 1838.

Sculptor, art dealer.

Paul Dumortier was a pupil of Moitte in Paris.

Article

Dutch, 19th century, male.

Active in Amsterdam.

Painter, art dealer, collector. Landscapes.

Article

Dutch, 18th – 19th century, male.

Active in Amsterdam.

Born 17 December 1773, in Hoorn; died 7 December 1843, in Gendringen.

Painter, art dealer. Landscapes.

Engelbert Michael Engelberts was the son of Engelbertus Matthias Engelberts. He painted townscapes and winter landscapes.