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José Miguel Rojas

(b San José, June 1, 1907; d 1998).

Costa Rican engraver, painter, illustrator, draughtsman, writer and critic. He studied for a year from 1931 at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes but was otherwise initially self-taught, using Louis Gonse’s L’Art japonais (Paris, 1883) as a source. He produced a series of caricature drawings, influenced by Cubism, in the Album de dibujos de 1926. During 1929 he met the sculptors Juan Manuel Sánchez and Francisco Zúñiga (the latter was also a printmaker), and through his interest in German and Mexican Expressionist printmakers, he developed a passion for wood-engraving. His first wood-engravings were published in the periodical Repertorio Americano (1929). He went on to contribute wood-engravings and drawings to collections of short stories and poetry, educational books, periodicals and newspapers. In 1931 he taught drawing and wood-engraving at the Escuela Normal in Heredia. He exhibited at the Salones Anuales de Artes Plásticas in San José (1931–6...

Article

Atl, Dr  

Xavier Moyssén

[Murillo, Gerardo ]

(b Guadalajara, Oct 3, 1875; d Mexico City, Aug 14, 1964).

Mexican painter, printmaker, writer, theorist, vulcanologist and politician. Better known by his pseudonym, which signifies ‘Doctor Water’ in Náhuatl and which he adopted in 1902, Murillo first studied art in Guadalajara and from 1890 to 1896 at the Academia de San Carlos in Mexico City, where his vocation became clear. In 1899 he travelled to Europe and settled in Rome, where the work of Michelangelo had a profound impact on him. He travelled to other countries to study and to learn about avant-garde painting. He went back to Mexico in 1904 and seven years later returned to Europe, only to rush back when the Revolution broke out in Mexico. He joined the revolutionary movement, taking an active role in its various activities, including the muralist movement, through which he was associated with Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco and David Alfaro Siqueiros. Although he practised portrait painting, his passion was for landscape in a variety of techniques and materials, some of them invented by him; for example, he used ‘atlcolours’, which were simply crayons made of wax, resins and pigment with which he could obtain textures not obtainable with oil paint. His favoured supports were rigid surfaces such as wood or hardboard....

Article

Julieta Ortiz Gaitán

(b Mexico City, Feb 26, 1896; d Mexico City, Oct 7, 1964).

Mexican painter, printmaker and critic. He was educated at the Escuela al Aire Libre de Santa Anita, Ixtapalapa, and at the Escuela al Aire Libre de Coyoacán. Leal worked in several media, including engraving, lithography and various painting techniques; he also wrote art criticism. The field in which he produced his most successful work was, however, mural painting. He belonged to the first generation of Mexican muralists, those called on by José Vasconcelos to decorate the public buildings in post-revolutionary Mexico. Leal was notable for his sense of colour, his skilful use of mural painting techniques and for the early use he made of popular Mexican subjects, particularly in his first mural the Dancers of Chalma (1922–3; Mexico City, Escuela N. Prep.). Other important murals followed, including the Scale of Life (1927, Mexico City, Ministry of Public Health; destr.), Bolívarian Epic (1930; Mexico City, Escuela N. Prep.), ...

Article

Argentinian, 20th century, male.

Born 1936, in Buenos Aires.

Engraver.

Hector Saunier studied architecture, composition and colour theory with H. Cartier; then he studied engraving with S.W. Hayter in Studio 17 in Paris. From 1963 to 1965 he went to England and now lives and works in Paris. He shows work in collective exhibitions, including the ...