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Article

Sofia Hernández Chong Cuy

American installation artists, active also in Puerto Rico. Jennifer Allora (b Philadelphia, Mar 20, 1974) graduated with a bachelor’s degree in art from the University of Richmond, Virginia (1996), and Guillermo Calzadilla (b Havana, Cuba, Jan 10, 1971) graduated with a Bachelor of Fine Arts from the Escuela de Artes Plastica in San Juan, Puerto Rico (1996). Allora and Calzadilla met in Italy in 1995 during a study abroad program in Florence. They then lived together in San Juan for a year before moving to New York City where they started working collaboratively while each participated in different residency and study programs. In 1998–1999, Allora participated in the year-long Whitney Independent Study Program, while Calzadilla participated in the P.S.1 Contemporary Arts Center National Studio Program.

Allora & Calzadilla’s first important international exhibition was the XXIV Bienal de São Paulo in 1998 curated by Paulo Herkenhoff, which investigated the idea of cultural cannibalism known in Brazilian literature as ...

Article

Brazilian, 20th century, female.

Sculptor, assemblage artist.

Baranek has taken part in collective exhibitions, such as the São Paulo Biennale in 1989.

Farias, Agnaldo: ‘Brésil: petit manuel d'instructions’ in Art Press n°221, periodical, Paris, February 1997.

Article

Eduardo Serrano

(b Cartagena, Oct 27, 1945).

Colombian painter, sculptor and conceptual artist. He studied at the Escuela de Bellas Artes of the University of Atlántico in Barranquilla, Colombia, from 1958 to 1960, and in Italy from 1966 to 1967 at the University of Perugia. In 1966, under the influence of Pop art, he made the first of a series of collages combining cut-outs of well-known individuals and comic strips with drawn elements. Two years later he added frosty effects and velvet flowers to his interpretations in black and red ink of figures with distorted bodies and the faces of film stars. In 1969 he began to present these in increasingly three-dimensional boxes or glass cases, accompanied by clouds of cotton wool, plastic figures and other additions that combined to make up fantastic or nostalgic scenes, dream-like and surrealist in appearance and tone.

Barrios was among those who introduced conceptual art to Colombia, for example by publishing in newspapers a series of ...

Article

Argentinian, 20th century, male.

Painter, sculptor, mixed media, architect.

Bedel's works are metaphorical. In relief to varying degrees, he combines shiny metal with dull organic materials to create models that resemble towns, while privileging the evocation of the book form. He gives poetic expression to his pessimistic preoccupations concerning the future of humanity....

Article

Uruguayan, 20th century, male.

Born 16 November 1942, in Montevideo.

Sculptor.

Armando Bergallo exhibited at the Venice Biennale of 1970, showing assemblages of juxtaposed linear structures.

Article

Argentinian, 20th century, male.

Born 14 May 1905, in Rosario (Santa Fé); died 13 October 1981, in Buenos Aires.

Painter, sculptor, engraver, collage artist, photomontage artist, assemblage artist. Figure compositions, landscapes, portraits, still-lifes, scenes with figures.

Nouvelle Figuration, Figuration Narrative.

Nuevo Realismo Group.

Berní was the son of Italian immigrants in Argentina. His childhood and early youth were marked by destitution. In 1915, when his father died, he went to live with his grandmother, where he had to travel 10 kilometres (six miles) on horseback to get to school every morning. From 1916, he was able to study stained glass window technique and attend a drawing course for young people. He was then influenced by the Post-Impressionism of the Spaniard, Joaquín Sorolla. He began to exhibit in 1918.From 1921 to 1924, he abandoned his studies and went to live among the peasants of the Pampa, where he painted landscapes. In 1925, he won a scholarship that enabled him to travel to Europe, where he stayed first in Madrid, then settled in Paris, where he frequented the studios of André Lhote and Othon Friesz at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière in Montparnasse and discovered the painting of Picasso, Braque and de Chirico. In 1928, still in Paris, he met the Surrealists, associating mainly with Aragon; he did not formally join the movement but he immersed himself in the psychological atmosphere of the group and its Marxist commitment. He read Marx, Engels and Lenin, and met Henri Lefebvre. His painting was influenced by his Surrealist friendships, particularly in the series of photomontages and collages that he embarked on in 1929. In 1930, he returned to Argentina, where he studied further and was still able in 1932 to exhibit his Surrealist paintings of 1929-1931, in which he had mainly applied Lautréamont's formula concerning encounters with random objects.On his return, he had founded the ...

Article

Brazilian, 20th century, male.

Born 16 March 1911, in Japarutuba (Nordeste); died 1989, in Rio de Janeiro.

Sculptor of assemblages.

Art Brut.

Having worked in turn as a sailor, boxer, hotel porter and lifeguard, Arthur Bispo do Rosário was committed to a psychiatric hospital in Rio suffering from schizophrenia. In ...

Article

Brazilian, 20th century, female.

Born 1941, in Rio de Janeiro.

Painter, collage artist, draughtswoman, sculptor.

Sonia von Brüsky studied at the Museu de Arte Moderno in Rio de Janeiro and continued her training in Munich and Brussels. Her early work consisted mainly of erotic-Surrealist drawings with masochistic connotations showing women crucified by demons with long Gothic wings and rotting flesh. She then moved on to sculpture and later she started to produce abstract, geometrical collages, often using letters, postcards and stamps....

Article

Cecilia Suárez

(b Quito, Sept 8, 1939).

Ecuadorean painter, graphic designer, sculptor, installation artist, architect and teacher. He studied architecture at the Universidad Nacional de Bogotá, Colombia. He worked for the Graham Foundation and the National Endowment for the Arts, Washington, DC, and received a grant to attend the Center for Advanced Visual Studies at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, where he worked with György Kepes. Later he became a professor at the arts faculty of the Universidad Central, Quito. Bueno worked first in graphic design before going on to experiment with the incorporation of technology into art, using laser beams, mechanical pumps, plastic, glass and such elements as water, fire and air, for example in 49 Tubes, exhibited at the Bienal de Arte Coltejer in Medellín in 1972. He also combined visual art with music in such works as Flame Orchards, with music by Paul Earls, which won joint first prize with Kepes in the same exhibition. Exploration into ecological and environmental art led him to experiment with the idea of an aerial view of the urban landscape incorporating military camouflage sheets....

Article

Uruguayan, 20th century, male.

Born 1903, in Las Piedras.

Sculptor.

German Cabera's first studies were at the Montevideo arts circle between 1918 and 1926, followed by travels around Europe (Germany, Belgium and France). He settled for a time in Paris where he was the pupil of Despiau and Bourdelle. In ...

Article

Brazilian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1946.

Painter (mixed media), sculptor.

Conceptual Art.

Waltercio Caldas Junior has taken part in group exhibitions including the Art from Brazil in New York exhibition shown in various museums and galleries in 1995 and the São Paulo Biennale in ...

Article

Brazilian, 20th century, male.

Born 1942, in Belo Horizonte.

Sculptor of assemblages, painter.

Dileny Campos produces objects and assemblages using plastic materials in which colour and material play a role in creating a playful dimension.

Article

Denise Carvalho

(b Belo Horizonte, Oct 23, 1920; d Rio de Janeiro, April 25, 1988).

Brazilian painter, sculptor, interactive artist and art therapist. She was a cofounder in 1959 of the Neo-Concrete movement, whose members laid the foundation for much of Brazilian contemporary art. The Neo-Concretists broke with the rigidity of the rationalism of Concrete art and advocated a more sensorial, interactive art. Lygia Clark and her creative soul-mate, Hélio Oiticica, created participatory works that challenged not only longstanding artistic dogmas, but also the role of the art object itself, as well as the role of the artist, the spectator, and the art institution. Their most groundbreaking works required the viewer to be part of the artwork and thereby experience it sensorially, all of which made their work difficult to categorize. Clark came to see even her exhibitions at major art events as meaningless, and her emphasis on person-to-person dialogue eventually led her into art therapy. Without a therapeutic license, she devoted her last decades solely to treating patients with her own form of art therapy....

Article

Argentinian, 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 27 November 1937, in Buenos Aires.

Installation artist, painter, draughtsman, sculptor, photographer, mixed media.

Neo-Constructivism.

Cafone was a student at the school of art in Buenos Aires and at the Slade School in London. A sculptor who abandoned his sculptor's tools very early on, he looked to drawing as a medium through which to find an equivalent, a medium in which he proved to have astonishing dexterity. His paintings employ mixed media, incorporating sheets of lead, for example. Harking back to his work as an installation sculptor, he also took the venue in which he was exhibiting into account, if needs be creating certain works directly onto the walls of the gallery. If a certain preciousness of materials, and in particular the ornamental details, are set aside, there is a relationship here between Cofone's work and Minimalism, given their common refusal to attach any meaning to the completed object other than the one that defines - in the most material terms possible - its physical relationship with the artist who has created it, not in his image, but on his scale....

Article

Brazilian, 20th century, male.

Born 1925, in Paris; died 1989.

Sculptor of assemblages.

Franck da Costa's family, which had made its money from rubber, often stayed in Paris, where he followed a wide range of studies. A career diplomat from 1950 onwards, he took up art in ...

Article

Brazilian, 20th century, male.

Born 1926, in Belo Horizonte.

Sculptor.

Coutinho completed 'object-sculptures', particularly very large 'boxes' in which the luminous effects play on assemblages of small parts made out of wood and coloured glass.

Article

Brazilian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1964, in Rio de Janeiro.

Sculptor, installation artist.

José Damasceno's sculptures, with their irregularly shaped forms and Baroque appearance, play conceptually on the idea of the one and its double. Thus, the twin pieces of Independent Transport (1997-2000...

Article

Chilean, 20th century, male.

Active in the USA from 1965.

Born 1940, in Santiago.

Sculptor, installation artist.

Lumino-Kinetic Art.

Between 1963 and 1965 Downey studied engraving at William Stanley Hayter's Studio 17 in Paris. His lumino-kinetic sculptures call for the viewer to participate by his use of scientific techniques and the play of shadows. He also produced public shows, installations, events, videos and publications....

Article

Brazilian, 20th century, female.

Born 1940, in Rio de Janeiro.

Painter, sculptor, mixed media.

In 1957 and 1958 Evany Fanzeres studied history of art, drawing and architecture at the fine arts institute in Rio de Janeiro. In 1961 she spent time in Great Britain and later travelled to Germany where, in Düsseldorf, in ...

Article

Argentinian, 20th century, male.

Active in Italy from 1905, naturalised Italian.

Born 19 February 1899, in Rosario de Santa Fé, to Italian parents; died 7 September 1968, in Comabbio (Varese).

Painter (including gouache/mixed media), watercolourist, sculptor, potter, draughtsman.

Spatialism.

Abstraction-Création group.

At the age of six, Lucio Fontana went to Italy with his parents, an Argentinian mother and his Italian father, Luigi Fontana, who was a funerary sculptor. It appears that he later went back to Argentina, only returning to Italy as a soldier during World War I. When the war was over he returned to Argentina and remained there from 1922 to 1927, working for a time in his father’s business before devoting himself entirely to sculpture and returning to Italy in 1927. In Milan, Fontana enrolled as a student of sculpture with Adolfo Wildt at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera and received his diploma in 1930. In 1934, with other artists, he founded the ...