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Antefix  

Nancy A. Winter

[antefixum; pl. antefixes, antefixa]. Plaque closing the outer end of the final cover tile in each row of overlapping cover tiles running down from the ridge to the eaves of a sloped roof on Classical Greek and Roman and on Neo-classical buildings. Its practical functions were to prevent rain from penetrating below the cover tile and seeping through the opening between the adjacent pan tiles beneath, and to prevent wind from dislodging the row of cover tiles. Although functional in origin, the antefix soon also became a decorative element adorned with relief and/or painted decoration. The size and shape of early examples was determined by that of the cover tile, but by c. 550–525 bc the plaque had become larger than its tile in order to accommodate more decoration.

The earliest antefixes, from the first half of the 7th century bc, apparently formed part of undecorated terracotta roofs in the Corinthia of ...

Article

Greek, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1768, in Zákinthos; died 1834, at Zákinthos.

Painter. Religious subjects, portraits.

Cantunis was the pupil of Nicolas Cutuzis, and also studied in Venice.

Athens (Ethnikí Pinakothíki)

Zakinthos (MA)

Article

Greek, 18th century, male.

Painter.

He was a monk and decorated the Convent on Mount Athos.

Article

Greek, 17th – 18th century, male.

Born in Zakynthos.

Painter.

Nicolas Doxaras was the son and also the pupil of Panagiotis.

Article

Greek, 17th – 18th century, male.

Born 1662, in Zakynthos; died 1729, on Corfu.

Painter.

Doxaras was the pupil of his fellow Greek, Moschos, before going to settle in Venice, where he learned to work in the style of the great colourists and painted a few portraits. He decorated churches including that of St Spiridon on Corfu....

Article

(b Hilpoltstein, nr Nuremberg, June 10, 1774; d Ampelakia, Greece, Nov 5, 1817).

German archaeologist and architect. He studied architecture at the Karls-Akademie in Karlsruhe and with David Gilly at the Bauakademie in Berlin. In 1808 he visited Italy. For a short while he worked as a building official in Nuremberg, but only a small number of his designs were executed. In 1810 he travelled to Greece, where he spent the rest of his life on archaeological expeditions and excavations. In April 1811 he was one of an English and German group, which included C. R. Cockerell, that discovered and excavated the Temple of Aphaia at Aigina. Haller von Hallerstein was able to persuade Crown Prince Ludwig of Bavaria (later King Ludwig I) to acquire the pediment sculptures for Munich (Munich, Glyp.). In August 1811 the same group excavated at Bassai and unearthed the Temple of Apollo, with its now-famous reliefs (London, BM). During his time in Greece, Haller von Hallerstein collated a collection of sketches and notes of great academic value, now held at the University of Strasbourg. As an architect, he is known mainly for his designs (...

Article

Greek, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1741, in Zakynthos; died 1813, in Zakynthos.

Painter. Religious subjects, portraits.

Kutuzis was a pupil of Panagiotis Doxaras and studied in Venice.

Athens (Ethnikí Pinakothíki)

Article

Greek, 18th century, male.

Born in Argos.

Painter.

Markos owes his reputation to the frescoes that he painted in the church of Panagia-Phanerumena on the island of Salamina. The work, carried out with his students, was completed in 1735.

Article

Greek, 18th century, male.

Active probably active during the 18th century.

Painter.

The Vatican Museum owns one of the works by Antonios Pampilopos, a Madonna and Child.

Article

Mark D. Fullerton

(fl Rome, 1st century bc).

Greek sculptor and writer from South Italy. He is generally regarded as the head of a school producing eclectic, neo-classical statuary related to Neo-Attic decorative reliefs. Virtually everything known about Pasiteles is derived from a few literary references. No signatures of his are extant, although a marble statue of a youth (c. 50 bc; Rome, Villa Albani) is signed by Stephanos as his pupil. Pasiteles received Roman citizenship around 89–88 bc, when enfranchisement was extended as a result of the Social War (Pliny XXXIII.lv.156; XXXVI.iv.40). He is mentioned as an expert in the chasing of metal (caelatura), especially elaborately decorated silver vessels (Pliny XXXV.xlv.156; Cicero: On Divination I.xxxvi.79). Despite being both a sculptor and metalworker, Pasiteles is never mentioned by Pliny in his section on sculptors in bronze. Rather, he is specifically identified as a modeller and ivory carver (XXXV.xlv.156; XXXVI.iv.40). He must have worked in marble as well, since his name occurs twice in book XXXVI, where marble sculpture is treated, and his student ...

Article

David Watkin

[Athenian]

(b London, 1713; d London, Feb 2, 1788).

English architect and archaeologist. Stuart, called ‘Athenian’ in his lifetime, achieved an international reputation as the author, with Nicholas Revett, of the Antiquities of Athens, in four volumes (1762–1816), the first accurate record of Classical Greek architecture. Second in importance only to the writings of Winckelmann in promoting enthusiasm throughout 18th-century Europe for the notion of a Greek ideal, it was these measured drawings and topographical views that were used as a basis for the Greek Revival architecture of Europe and North America in the early 19th century.

Born in humble circumstances, the son of a Scottish mariner, Stuart set out on foot for Rome in 1742. In 1748 he and Revett issued their ‘Proposals for publishing an accurate Description of the Antiquities of Athens’. Subsidized by members of the Society of Dilettanti, they left Italy for Greece in January 1751 and returned to England in 1755. Publication of the first volume of the ...

Article

Greek, 17th – 18th century, male.

Active on Corfu.

Born in the second half of the 17th century, of Cretan origin.

Icon painter.

Athens (Ethnikí Pinakothíki): Adoration of the Shepherds (1688--1700, tempera on panel)

Article

(b Stendal, Dec 9, 1717; d Trieste, June 8, 1768).

German art historian. His writings on the sculpture of ancient Greece and Rome redefined the history of art and provided a theoretical apologia for Neo-classicism. Geschichte der Kunst des Alterthums (1764) was a standard reference on the art of the ancient world until well into the 19th century. Winckelmann revolutionized archaeological studies by providing a framework for stylistic classification of antiquities by period of origin, whereas previous antiquarian scholars had concerned themselves almost exclusively with questions of subject-matter. His analysis of the aesthetics of Greek art and his account of the conditions that encouraged its flowering, which highlighted the importance of climate and the political freedom of the ancient Greek city states, had a major impact in the art world of his time. His scholarly celebrations of masterpieces of ancient sculpture were particularly popular and were widely quoted in travel books and artistic treatises.

The son of a cobbler, Winckelmann studied Greek and Latin, as well as theology, mathematics and medicine, at the universities of Halle and Jena. After five years as a Classics teacher in Seehausen, he was employed in ...

Article

Greek, 17th – 18th century, male.

Icon painter.

Stefan Zankarolas was a painter of the Italo-Byzantine school.