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Natalia Marinho Ferreira Alves

Portuguese family of wood-carvers. Manuel Abreu do Ó and his brother Sebastião Abreu do Ó (both fl Évora c. 1728–c. 1770) worked in collaboration, carving some of the finest and most influential Joanine and Rococo altarpieces in southern Portugal. They carved in delicate flat relief using patterns similar to those found in Spain, a style contrasting with the dramatic plastic effects seen in contemporary wood-carving in northern Portugal.

An example of the Abreu do Ó brothers’ early work is the main retable of the Cartuxa, the Charterhouse, Évora, gilded in 1729. It is composed on one level, and a sense of movement is suggested by the projection of the outer columns. They created one of the finest ensembles of 18th-century carving in southern Portugal in the chancel and transept of the Carmelite church of Nossa Senhora dos Remédios, Évora (c. 1760–70). On the main retable the areas between the column shafts are decorated with leaves and roses scattered asymmetrically, creating the impression of a lace covering. The votive tablet crowning the arch of the retable is carved with great delicacy. The lateral retables have curving double pediments whose undulating movement is echoed by large canopies above. The design of the pulpit was important in southern Portugal, because although it was in the Joanine style and inspired by developments in Lisbon it was also Rococo in spirit. The interior of the church emphasizes the importance of the role that gilt wood-carving played in the decoration of Portuguese churches during the 18th century....

Article

Matthias Frehner

(b Pfronten-Ried, nr Füssen, June 25, 1716; d Einsiedeln, Feb 9, 1799).

Swiss sculptor of German birth. He was apprenticed to the sculptor Peter Heel (1696–1767), but in 1732, after his father died, Babel became an itinerant journeyman sculptor. He appears to have moved gradually southwards, possibly drawn by the chance to study at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna and by the far greater number of commissions to be found there, from both secular and ecclesiastical patrons. In collaborating on large-scale decorative commissions, Babel would not only have acquired a solid training as a sculptor in stone and stucco but would also have learnt the stylistic vocabulary of international Baroque. A particularly strong early influence was the stuccowork of Francesco Carlone (1674–1750), with whom Babel probably collaborated.

In 1742 Babel settled in Mimmenhausen, residence of the leading Rococo sculptor Josef Anton Feuchtmayer. Here he made his first appearance as an independent master when he presented Abbot ...

Article

Françoise de la Moureyre

(b Paris, baptJune 10, 1646; d Paris, Dec 31, 1732).

French sculptor and bronze-caster. He came from a family of goldsmiths of Flemish origin who settled in Paris in the early 17th century. Early biographers state that he trained with Michel or François Anguier and at the Académie Royale. He spent six years at the Académie de France in Rome, where he is said to have studied above all the sculpture of Bernini. This was followed by four years in Venice. He applied for admission to the Académie in 1678, and he was received (reçu) in 1681 with a marble statuette of Polyphemus (Paris, Louvre), inspired by Annibale Carracci’s fresco in the Palazzo Farnese, Rome. From this time until 1720 he enjoyed a highly successful career in royal service and in the employ of the Church and of private clients. He devoted much energy to the affairs of the academy, eventually holding the office of Chancellor. He worked in every branch of sculpture, from monumental marble and bronze statues to small bronze statuettes and candlesticks....

Article

D. Signe Jones

(b Bologna, 1688; d Naples, 1772).

Italian sculptor. He worked within the tradition of late Baroque classicism in Rome, moving, in his mature works, towards a Rococo style. He studied painting with Giovanni Maria Viani or Domenico Viani and sculpture perhaps with Giuseppe Mazza. Little of his early Bolognese work remains. He went to Rome in the 1730s and participated in numerous decorative schemes for major architectural projects. His contribution included several over life-size, marble statues: a St Jerome (1735), for the façade of S Giovanni in Laterano (balustrade: sixth from right); Abundance (1735), for the Trevi Fountain (attic: far left); Pope Gregory the Great (1742–3), for the façade of S Maria Maggiore (upper balustrade: second from left); and a St Luke (1744), for the façade of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme (second from left).

Corsini also sculpted a number of portrait busts depicting cardinals for memorial tomb monuments by ...

Article

Fausta Franchini Guelfi

(b Genoa, Sept 18, 1664; d Genoa, March 7, 1739).

Italian sculptor and wood-carver. In 1680 he entered the workshop of his uncle, the sculptor Giovanni Battista Agnesi, as an apprentice, but he also attended the workshop of the furniture-maker Pietro Andrea Torre (d 1668). By 1688 he already had his own workshop in partnership with Giovanni Battista Pedevilla. The success of his work soon enabled him to open an independent workshop, where he was assisted by pupils, among them his own son, Giovanni Battista Maragliano (d after 1762). His early works include St Michael and Lucifer (1694; Celle Ligure, oratory of S Michele) and St Sebastian (1700; Rapallo, oratory of the Bianchi), both processional casse: groups of polychrome wooden statues made to be carried in procession by the religious confraternities on feast days. The larger part of Maragliano’s production consists of such monumental groups, in which the scenes from a saint’s life (ecstasy, martyrdom etc) are represented in a theatrical manner, expressing devotional wonder and intense emotional involvement. The lively colouring of the sculptures was done by specialist polychrome painters, at times under the supervision of Maragliano himself. Among the most famous of these ...

Article

Elisabeth Kieven

(b Rome, Feb 10, 1702; d Rome, July 28, 1786).

Italian architect, sculptor, draughtsman and designer. He owed his career to the patronage of cardinals Alessandro Albani (see Albani family, §2) and Annibale Albani. Like the Marchionni family, the Albani family came from the Marches. Marchionni first trained as a sculptor, then studied architecture at the Accademia di S Luca in Rome under Filippo Barigioni, winning the first prize in 1728, his final year. Marchionni’s prizewinning drawings demonstrated his exceptional talent as a draughtsman, always far greater than his inspiration as an architect. Cardinal Alessandro Albani engaged him to build his villa in Anzio as early as 1728 and in 1734 commissioned Marchionni to design the façade of the collegiate church at Nettuno. Both are conventional works carrying the imprint of the Accademia, revealing a clear commitment to the past in their use of 17th-century architectural motifs. Marchionni worked as a sculptor between 1730 and 1748. His most interesting sculptural work is the tomb of ...

Article

Iris Kockelbergh

[Walther]

(b Lith, North Brabant, Nov 29, 1703; d Antwerp, Feb 6, 1777).

Dutch sculptor, active in Flanders. He trained in the Antwerp workshop of Michiel van der Voort I and became a master in the Guild of St Luke in 1730. He ran a busy studio that specialized in the production of small-scale devotional statues in marble, wood, terracotta and ivory, in an eclectic style ranging from the light-hearted Rococo of such works as the putti now in a private collection at Doorn (wood, 1733; see exh. cat., p. 73) to the solemn Baroque of his statues on the altar of S Peeter (marble, 1740) at Turnhout. The sculptures associated with his name vary in quality, and many must be studio productions. Among his best works are the classicizing statue of Justice (1733; in situ) for the town hall at Culemborg and the statues of St Peter and St Paul (terracotta, 1757) in St Andrew’s, Antwerp. His sons ...

Article

D. Signe Jones

(b Genoa, 1704; d Naples, 1762).

Italian sculptor. He was a student in Genoa of Bernardo Schiaffino. Little of his early work survives. In the 1720s he settled in Rome under the protection of Cardinal Spinola and entered Giuseppe Rusconi’s studio. In 1733 he received a third prize in the first class of sculpture from the Accademia di S Luca. One of his earliest signed works was a life-size marble bust of Clement XII (1730s; Florence, Gal. Corsini).

From the mid-1730s Queirolo produced decorative sculptures for important architectural projects in Rome. He worked in collaboration with such architects as Alessandro Galilei, Nicola Salvi and Ferdinando Fuga, and he executed over life-size travertine statues of St Filippo Benizi (1734–5; Rome, façade of S Giovanni dei Fiorentini), St Carlo Borromeo (1742–3; Rome, S Maria Maggiore) and of Gifts of Autumn (1735; Rome, Trevi Fountain). He provided stucco decoration for Santa Trinità della Missione and SS Nome di Maria. Queirolo designed and sculpted the tomb monument of ...

Article

Vernon Hyde Minor

(b Milan, July 14, 1658; d Rome, Dec 9, 1728).

Italian sculptor. He was one of the last great Roman sculptors to practise in the Grand Manner. His career began in the late Baroque period and continued into the early Rococo or Barocchetto (as it came to be known for Italian art). There are elements of both periods in his style, yet he favoured the earlier, more dynamic and universalizing way of expressing artistic ideas.

Rusconi’s career followed a traditional and successful pattern. He was schooled in Milan by the Jesuits, and at the age of 15 he went to study with Giuseppe Rusnati (d 1713), a Milanese sculptor who had been part of Ercole Ferrata’s workshop in Rome. Rusconi had therefore felt the influence of Roman High Baroque sculpture before he went to Rome to work with his master’s master at the age of 28. Ferrata unfortunately died shortly afterwards, in 1686. Rusconi inherited from his masters the styles of Algardi and Bernini, the two most influential Roman sculptors of the previous generation. In particular he was influenced by Bernini’s copious forms and expansive gestures: although he did not tap the expressive energies of the Baroque in the same way as Bernini, the Grand Manner, revealing powerful human passions and depicting virtuous actions, remained prominent in his work. The most important influence on Rusconi was, however, that of the painter Carlo Maratti, who dismissed many of the more extreme conventions of Baroque composition in favour of ordered grouping and clear presentation of individual figures and narrative; his manner became the court style that dominated late Baroque art in Europe....

Article

José Fernandes Pereira

(b Braga, 1720; d Braga, 1769).

Portuguese architect and designer of altarpieces. His work, which is confined to Braga and the province of Minho, combines the Portuguese Baroque tradition with elements of Bavarian Rococo in an exuberant style full of lyricism, formal invention and ingenious plasticity. It was rediscovered by Smith (1958), having long been assigned to ‘an unknown master’.

Soares was the son of a wealthy businessman of Braga. In 1737 he took minor orders and in 1738 entered the Brotherhood of St Thomas Aquinas, becoming its major-domo in 1760. It is not known where he received his training, but it is probable that he knew the Braga artist Marceliano de Araújo and that he had access to the rich repertory of forms available in contemporary Augsburg engravings, which are known to have been in circulation in Braga. His first documented work is the frontispiece to the Statute Book of the Brotherhood of the Infant Jesus and St Anne (...