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Article

Darryl Patrick

(fl 1820–50).

American architect. There is evidence that Bond was trained by Solomon Willard. Certain of Bond’s designs suggest the Greek Revival approach that Willard brought from Washington, DC. Bond’s style moved between Gothic Revival and a Neo-classical heaviness. In the Salem City Hall of 1836–37 the two-storey Greek Revival façade shows his carefully proportioned details. An example of Gothic Revival is St John’s Episcopal Church and Rectory (1841), Devens Street, Boston, which has a rather heavy granite façade dominated by a square tower with a battlemented roof-line; there are large quatrefoil windows in the walls below. In the same year Bond was called to Oberlin College in Ohio to design First Church, which had to be a Greek Revival design. He worked on Lewis Wharf (1836–40; later remodelled), Boston, where certain walls reflect his attraction to boldly massed granite surfaces. Bond’s best-known buildings during his life were at Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. These included Gore Hall (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1811; d 1887).

American furniture-maker based in New York. He was active from 1841, when he entered into a partnership, and was based in Brooklyn from the 1850s. The best-known examples of his furniture are a Gothic Revival armchair (c. 1847; New York, Met.) and an elaborately decorated cabinet (built to accommodate a set of Audubon’s ...

Article

Donna McGee

(b Belfast, Nov 5, 1811; d Montreal, Nov 19, 1885).

Canadian architect of Irish origin. The son of an architect of the same name, he arrived in Quebec City in 1830. He established a practice there in 1831 and designed houses, including a Gothic Revival villa for the provincial secretary Dominick Daly (1798–1868), who may have been responsible for Browne’s appointment as Chief Architect for the Board of Works. He designed many public buildings in Kingston and Montreal; the former became capital of the Province of Canada in 1841, and Browne was commissioned to modify, add to and erect various government buildings. His masterpiece in Kingston is the City Hall (1843–4; then known as the Town Hall and Market Building), the commission he won in a competition held in 1841. The City Hall shows his characteristic massing of volumes and contrasting textures, using a varied vocabulary and a strong sculptural sense. Facing the waterfront, the main entrance to the T-shaped City Hall has a pediment supported by four columns, surmounted by a tall dome capped by a cupola. He was also responsible for many commercial and domestic commissions in Kingston, notably the houses known as St Andrew’s Manse for St Andrew’s Presbyterian Church and Rockwood for ...

Article

Malcolm Thurlby

(b Limerick, 1840; d Toronto, Dec 13, 1904).

Canadian architect of Irish birth. He trained in the architectural office, in Dublin, of J. J. McCarthy, who was known as the Irish Pugin from his mastery of the Gothic Revival style. Connolly served as McCarthy’s chief assistant, made a European study tour and by 1871 was in practice in Dublin. In 1873 he moved to Toronto and formed a partnership with Silas James, which was dissolved in 1877. Connolly designed or remodelled more than 30 churches for Roman Catholic patrons in Ontario as well as the cathedral at Sault-Sainte-Marie, MI. He worked primarily according to the ecclesiological doctrines contained in A. W. N. Pugin’s True Principles (1841). His finest work, the church of Our Lady (1876) at Guelph, combines the plan of Cologne Cathedral with its ambulatory and radiating chapel, with details inspired by McCarthy’s Monaghan Cathedral, St Macartan’s (begun 1861). Variants on the Guelph design occur at St Peter’s (...

Article

Douglass Shand-Tucci

(b Hampton Falls, NH, Dec 16, 1863; d Boston, Sept 22, 1942).

American architect and writer. Cram was the leading Gothic Revival architect in North America in the first half of the 20th century, at the head of an informal school known as the Boston Gothicists, who transformed American church design.

In 1881 Cram was apprenticed to the firm of Rotch & Tilden in Boston. His letters on artistic subjects to the Boston Transcript led to his appointment as the journal’s art critic by the mid-1880s. In 1886 he began his first European tour. In 1888 he founded the firm of Cram & Wentworth with Charles Wentworth (1861–97). With the arrival of Bertram Goodhue, the firm became Cram, Wentworth & Goodhue in 1892, and in 1899 Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson, with Frank Ferguson (1861–1926) having joined the office as business and engineering partner following the death of Wentworth.

Cram was strongly influenced both by the philosophies of John Ruskin...

Article

William Dendy

Canadian architectural partnership formed in 1895 by Frank Darling (1850–1923) and John (Andrew) Pearson (1867–1940). Frank Darling’s career was founded in the Gothic Revival and conditioned by the ecclesiological inclinations of his father, the first cleric to introduce Anglican high church ritualism and fittings into Toronto. He studied for three years in London in 1870–73, in the offices of G. E. Street and Arthur Blomfield (1829–99), and in 1874 established his practice in Toronto. His most important early works were High Anglican parish churches in Toronto that drew on English Gothic Revival and then American Romanesque Revival sources, especially for the unfinished church of St Mary Magdalene in central Toronto (1886–92). The contacts made through church work led to institutional and commercial commissions, such as Trinity College, Toronto (1877–1905, destr.), and in 1880 Darling won a competition for the Legislative Buildings, Toronto (not executed), for the Province of Ontario. After ...

Article

Christopher A. Thomas

(b Bath, March 8, 1823; d Ottawa, Sept 28, 1898).

Canadian architect of English birth. He was trained in Bath under James Wilson (1816–1900), who specialized in the design of Nonconformist churches, usually in the Gothic style, and schools. Fuller’s earliest-known independent commission was the rebuilding (1845–8) of the Anglican cathedral in Antigua, which had been destroyed in an earthquake. He produced an elaborate design for a cruciform building with an Italianate stone exterior, an earthquake-proof interior timber frame, and a richly panelled classical interior. However, because it failed to conform to the prevailing Gothic Revival style, it was criticized by the progressive English architectural press.

Back in England by 1847, Fuller formed a partnership with William Bruce Gingell (1819–1900), also a pupil of Wilson’s, who is known chiefly for his later designs in Bristol in a massive Byzantine style. Fuller & Gingell, who had offices at Bath and possibly Bristol, followed Wilson in their preference for commissions of a public and institutional character, usually rendered in the fashionable Italianate style. By this time, however, Fuller was keenly interested in the Gothic Revival and is said to have assisted ...

Article

Douglass Shand-Tucci

(Grosvenor)

(b Pomfret, CT, April 28, 1869; d New York, April 23, 1924).

American architect and illustrator. In 1892–1913 he worked in partnership with Ralph Adams Cram, designing a remarkable series of Gothic Revival churches. His later work, in a variety of styles, culminated in the Nebraska State Capitol, a strikingly original design.

In 1884 Goodhue moved to New York, where he entered the office of Renwick, Aspinwall & Russell as an office boy. In 1891 he won a competition to design a proposed cathedral in Dallas but joined the office of Cram & Wentworth in Boston as chief draughtsman and informal partner. The following year Goodhue became a full partner in Cram, Wentworth & Goodhue, which, after the death of Charles Wentworth (1861–97) and his replacement by Frank Ferguson (1861–1926), became in 1898 Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson.

Before Goodhue’s arrival, Cram & Wentworth had already begun work on All Saints at Ashmont, Boston, their first major work. The final design clearly derives from their earlier proposal of ...

Article

Hubbert  

American, 16th century, male.

Active during the second half of the 16th century.

Painter. Portraits.

Article

Kitson  

Janet A. Headley

American sculptors. Henry Hudson Kitson (b Huddersfield, Yorks, 9 April ?1864; d Tyringham, MA, 26 June 1947) moved to the USA where he trained as a sculptor and worked with his brother John William Kitson (1846–88), contributing to the Gothic-inspired Astor Memorial Altar (1877; Trinity Church) and the Fifth Avenue mansion of William K. Vanderbilt (1883; destr.), both in New York. He pursued formal training in Paris, with a Salon success of Music of the Sea (subsequently cast in bronze, 1884; Boston, MA, Mus. F. A.), another in the long line of picturesque ‘Neapolitan’ types by François Rude, Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux, Hiram Powers, and Vincenzo Gemito. Kitson showcased his skill in this work: the anatomy is carefully articulated, the pose a complex spiral.

In 1886 Kitson settled in Boston, where he met aspiring sculptor Theo Alice Ruggles (b Brookline, MA, 1871; d Boston, MA, ...

Article

Margaret Moore Booker

Term referring to an architectural style popular in mid- to late 19th-century America inspired by the 11th- and 12th-century Romanesque architecture of Spain, France, and Italy. Admired for its overall picturesque qualities, the signature features of the style were a multitude of round-topped ‘Romanesque’ arches (often springing from clusters of short columns), recessed entrances, cylindrical towers with conical roofs, heavy masonry walls, ornamental corbelling, and asymmetrical massing.

The castle-like Romanesque Revival was initially used for churches and large public buildings, such as courthouses. For a brief period, in the late 1880s and 1890s, a number of houses were built in the style primarily in urban areas of the Northeast and Midwest. Its massive stone or brick walls, arched and arcaded entrances, round-arch windows, and the costliness of materials symbolized the prosperity and worldliness of the newly rich in America during the Industrial Revolution. The first two architects to design buildings in this manner were ...

Article

American, 16th century, male.

Died 1593.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman. Genre scenes, landscapes.

John White worked in London. In 1585 he accompanied Walter Raleigh on his expedition to Virginia in order to document the natural environment and inhabitants of the native Indian settlements in present day North Carolina. These drawings and watercolours provide the earliest visual record of colonisation in America and were used to encourage further investment from England. Raleigh appointed White as governor of the colony of Roanoke but, having gone back to England to seek further supplies, he returned to find the colonists were no longer there, spurring the birth of the legend of the 'Lost Colony'. Several of his works were engraved by Theodore de Bry and published in Thomas Hariot's ...