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Anne R. Morand

(b Robeline, LA, Feb 8, 1890; d Tulsa, OK, May 6, 1962).

American oil magnate, patron and collector. He started the Gilcrease Oil Company in 1922 on land he had received in the Indian land allotments before the creation of the State of Oklahoma in 1907. With the profits from his company Gilcrease began collecting material relating to the development of American culture in the late 1930s. Of partly Indian descent, he felt he owed a debt to the Indian heritage that had allowed him to obtain his wealth. He therefore specialized in collecting the art of the American West, acquiring over 200 works each by George Catlin, Alfred Jacob Miller and Thomas Moran. At the time of his death Gilcrease owned over 10,000 works of art (paintings, drawings, prints and sculpture) by over 400 American artists, spanning 500 years. The art collections were supplemented by large anthropological and archival sections. In 1955 Gilcrease deeded his collection to the City of Tulsa. He eventually gave the museum building and the acreage surrounding it, so as to form the Thomas Gilcrease Institute of American History and Art....


[emerging art markets]

Since the 1980s art markets have developed rapidly outside of Europe and the USA. In the so-called BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) this development has been particularly dynamic. With aggregate sales estimated at €11.5 billion, China is the second largest market for art and antiques in the world after the USA (McAndrew 2014). Works of art made by modern and contemporary artists from all four countries regularly fetch more than $1 million at auction.

The rise of the BRICs has coincided with the global integration of what used to be local art markets: demand for and supply of particular artists or artistic movements may now be dispersed across the globe. The boom which global art markets have witnessed in the new millennium can be attributed partially to new buyers from countries like China and Russia developing an interest in art, both old and new. In describing the emergence of the BRICs, the focus in this article will be on modern and contemporary art, since that is where market development has been most significant, both qualitatively and quantitatively....


Noémie Goldman and Kim Oosterlinck

Term for the return of lost or looted cultural objects to their country of origin, former owners, or their heirs. The loss of the object may happen in a variety of contexts (armed conflicts, war, colonialism, imperialism, or genocide), and the nature of the looted cultural objects may also vary, ranging from artworks, such as paintings and sculptures, to human remains, books, manuscripts, and religious artefacts. An essential part of the process of restitution is the seemingly unavoidable conflict around the transfer of the objects in question from the current to the former owners. Ownership disputes of this nature raise legal, ethical, and diplomatic issues. The heightened tensions in the process arise because the looting of cultural objects challenges, if not breaks down, relationships between peoples, territories, cultures, and heritages.

The history of plundering and art imperialism may be traced back to ancient times. Looting has been documented in many instances from the sack by the Romans of the Etruscan city of Veii in ...