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Article

Francisco Portela Sandoval

(b Madrid, Feb 23, 1845; d Madrid, Dec 20, 1924).

Spanish sculptor. He was the son of the sculptor Francisco Bellver (1812–89), with whom he undertook his first studies until attending the Madrid Escuela Superior de Pintura, Escultura y Grabado. Ricardo soon started to submit to the Exposiciones Nacionales de Bellas Artes works on historical subjects, such as Tucapel (1862), on mythology, such as Satyr Playing the Flute and a Young Faun Playing with a Goat (both 1864), and others that were religious, such as Piety (1866).

In 1874 Bellver y Ramón obtained a grant to study at the Academia Española de Bellas Artes in Rome; there his most significant works included a bust of Don Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba, El Gran Capitán (1453–1515), executed in 1875, and a relief entitled the Burial of St Agnes, which shows traces of Neo-classicism (Madrid, S Francisco el Grande). During this period he sculpted his popular and dynamic ...

Article

(b Valpiana, Oct 1, 1842; d Milan, May 25, 1907).

Italian architect and engineer. He studied in Pavia and then at the Politecnico in Turin, where he qualified as an engineer (1867). He also studied architecture under Camillo Boito at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera, Milan. Among his early designs were the classical octagonal marble fountain (1870), known as ‘La Bollente’, in the spa town of Acqui Terme, and buildings including the four entrance gateways at the Esposizione Italiana (1881), Milan, his first major project. His two most important works are completely dissimilar in style. The Museo Civico di Storia Naturale (1888–93; damaged 1943; restored) on the Corso Venezia, Milan, is in a powerful Romanesque and Gothic style with a hint of Moorish architecture and, though much influenced by the ideas of Camillo Boito, it also has close international parallels in style with other natural history museums, such as that in London (...

Article

Stephen T. Clarke, Harley Preston and Lin Barton

English family of silversmiths, industrialists, collectors, and patrons, of French origin. The family originated from the town of St Pierre on the Ile d’Oléron off La Rochelle. They arrived in London a few years after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, and between 1708 and 1780 three generations of Courtauld silversmiths were registered at the Goldsmiths’ Company. Augustine Courtauld (c.1686–c. 1751) was apprenticed to Simon Pantin in 1701 and, after becoming a freeman of the Goldsmiths’ Company in 1708, he started a business as a plateworker in Church Court, off St Martin’s Lane in London. The majority of his work is of high quality, for example a silver tea-table (1742; St Petersburg, Hermitage) and the state salt of the Corporation of the City of London (1730; London, Mansion House). Augustine’s brother Pierre Courtauld (1690–1729) registered a mark in 1721...

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Article

Clementine Schack von Wittenau

(b Kloster-Veilsdorf, nr Rudolstadt, Thuringia, Nov 28, 1868; d Munich, Aug 18, 1945).

German sculptor. He entered the Kunstgewerbeschule in Munich in 1887 and a year later went to the Akademie where he studied under Wilhelm von Rümann until 1892. In 1896 he took over Rümann’s teaching at the Akademie; he became an honorary professor in 1902 and was appointed full professor in 1912, training a whole generation of sculptors who were nicknamed the ‘Münchner Archaiker’. Although he became a member of the National Socialist Party, he was compelled to give up his teaching post in 1937. The small bronze statue Eva (e.g. Munich, Ver. Bild. Kstler) established Hahn’s reputation as a Jugendstil artist. It was only in his middle years that he developed into an outstanding representative of neo-classicism, as is demonstrated in particular by his two monuments to Moltke, one made in 1899 for Chemnitz, in the Hauptmarkt, and the other in 1909 for Bremen, on the façade of the north tower of the Liebfrauenkirche, and the monument to ...

Article

(Ernst Emil)

(b Darmstadt, July 30, 1852; d Berlin, Nov 11, 1932).

German architect and writer. He attended the Kunstakademie, Kassel (1873), and the Bauakademie, Berlin (1874–9), where his teachers included Johann Heinrich Strack and Richard Lucae, and he won the Schinkel prize. In 1879 he took the government examination in architecture and became a government architect (1884). In 1885 he won a competition, with Peter Dybwad (1859–1921), for the Reichsgericht in Leipzig and a subsequent commission to revise the design; work was carried out on this monumental, neo-classicist law court between 1887 and 1895. In early April 1896 Hoffmann was elected city architect of Berlin, a post he retained until 1924 (see Berlin §I 4.). As city architect he was responsible for all types of public buildings in Berlin: swimming baths, bridges, fountains, monuments, fire stations, hospitals, arts and festival buildings, residential buildings, schools, social facilities, municipal and administration buildings. Notable examples include the swimming baths (...

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Norwegian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1835, in Moss; died 18 December 1923, in Christiania (now Oslo).

Sculptor.

Carl Ludwig Jacobsen was influenced by the Danish Neo-Classical sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen. He worked for the King of Denmark.

Bergen: Helberg

Copenhagen: The Minister Due; Falsen; Collett...

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Enrique Arias Anglés

In 

Article

Lisbet Balslev Jørgensen

(b Abeltoft, Sept 6, 1856; d Frederiksberg, June 27, 1920).

Danish architect, painter and teacher. After technical school and apprenticeship to a bricklayer, he attended the School of Architecture of the Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi in Copenhagen in 1873. He was taught by Hans Jørgen Holm, an advocate of a national style based on the free use of historically associative elements, and Ferdinand Meldahl, who espoused a more ‘correct’ and thus more international architecture. After leaving the Kunstakademi in 1878, Kampmann worked for Holm and Meldahl before going to Paris, where, at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, he learnt the ‘wet’ watercolour technique that he later passed on to his pupils Edvard Thomsen, Aage Rafn, Kay Fisker and his sons Hans Jørgen Kampmann and Christian Kampmann. He was awarded the large gold medal in 1884 and then embarked on a Grand Tour on which he executed travel sketches of Germany, Italy and Greece, capturing in watercolour textures and atmospheres.

In his buildings, logic and legibility informed Kampmann’s approach throughout. For his home town of Hjørring he built a hospital (...

Article

Asko Salokorpi

(Arvid)

(b Helsinki, May 19, 1867; d Helsinki, May 17, 1939).

Finnish architect. He studied architecture (1884–8) at the Polytechnic Institute, Helsinki, and with F. A. Sjöström (1840–85), an architect who designed several important Neo-classical buildings in Helsinki and elsewhere in Finland. Sjöström’s influence is clearly evident in Lindqvist’s student projects and early independent designs. His first important work, the Merkurius Building (1888–90), 33 Pohjoisesplanadi, Helsinki, was designed when he was 21. The façade of this building, a residential block with shops and offices on the ground and mezzanine floors, demonstrates Lindqvist’s assured handling of Neo-classical forms. It is also notable for the use of modern construction techniques, whereby the upper storeys are supported on cast-iron pillars that allow the office storeys below to be fronted with large plate-glass windows. It is not clear whether this innovation, which represented a completely new approach in Finnish architecture, was the work of Lindqvist or the master builder ...

Article

Oscar E. Vázquez, Enrique Arias Anglés, M. Dolores Jiménez-Blanco and Jesús Gutiérrez Burón

Spanish family of artists, teachers, critics and museum directors. Its members included some of the most important artists in 19th-century Spain. (1) José de Madrazo y Agudo was a Neo-classical painter who had trained under David in Paris and also in Rome. He remained faithful to the tenets of Neo-classicism in subject-matter and style and became director of both the Real Academia de S Fernando and the Museo del Prado in Madrid. Two of his sons, (2) Federico de Madrazo y Küntz and Luis de Madrazo y Küntz (b Madrid, 27 Feb 1825; d Madrid, 9 Feb 1897), were also painters. Federico became the foremost portrait painter in Spain as well as holding all the significant posts in the art establishment. José’s other sons were the art historian and critic (3) Pedro de Madrazo y Küntz, whose work includes studies of the Prado collection, and the architect Juan de Madrazo y Küntz (...

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M. Dolores Jiménez-Blanco

In 

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Lisbet Balslev Jørgensen

(Christian)

(b Copenhagen, Jan 17, 1871; d Copenhagen, June 19, 1923).

Danish architect. After attending technical school and serving an apprenticeship as a carpenter, he was admitted to the Arkitektskole of the Kunstakademi in Copenhagen (1896), but he left in protest at the teaching (1902) to work independently. At an exhibition in 1901 he saw Gottlieb Bindesbøll’s drawings for the Thorvaldsens Museum, C. F. Harsdorff’s model for the unbuilt Frederikskirke and drawings by C. F. Hansen. He concluded that architecture and art of the late 18th and early 19th century constituted an organic unity, submitting to a common ideal. He studied the play of light and shadow to create space and how form, texture and colour had an effect on the interior space. He also studied Chinese furniture and stoneware in museums because of his desire to grasp superior manipulation of colour and textural effects of art of the Far East, as well as the command of line and shape of Neo-classicism. He worked with ceramics (...

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Jesús Gutiérrez Burón

In 

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Harley Preston and Lin Barton

In 

Article

József Sisa

(b Biala, Galicia [now Bialsko-Biala, Poland], Oct 14, 1846; d Budapest, July 11, 1915).

Hungarian architect, painter and interior designer of German descent. He studied in Karlsruhe and Vienna, and in 1868 he went to Budapest where he worked first in the offices of Antal Szkalnitzky and Miklós Ybl. His designs included the sepulchral monument (1871–2) of Count Lajos Batthyány in the Kerepesi cemetery, Budapest, and other monuments and pedestals for statues. In 1894 he entered into partnership with Fülöp Herzog (1860–1925), with whom he designed the neo-classical architectural ensemble of Heroes’ Square, which terminates the 2.5 km long Radial Avenue (Sugár út, now Andrássy út). In the middle stands the Millenary Monument (1894–1900), a semicircular double colonnade with bronze figures of Hungarian sovereigns and a single, tall Corinthian column with sculpture by György Zala, which commemorates the 1000th anniversary of the Magyar conquest. On opposite sides of the square they built the Art Hall (1895–6), a porticoed red-brick structure with multicoloured terracotta decoration, and the ...

Article

Peter Springer

(b Mittweida, June 23, 1828; d Dresden, March 21, 1910).

German sculptor. He enrolled at the Akademie, Dresden, at the age of 15, from 1845 training under Ernst Rietschel. He then studied (1851–2) at the Akademie in Berlin, where his tutors included Friedrich Drake, and again (1853–4) at the Dresden Akademie, partly as assistant to Ernst Julius Hähnel. From 1854 to 1855 he was in Italy on a scholarship, and from 1857 he had his own studio in Dresden. Among his notable early works were a frieze for the vestibule of the Dresden Museum (1853; Dresden, Gemäldegal. Alte Meister) and a monument to Oberbürgermeister Demiani (1861–2) for Görlitz. He became especially well-known for his sandstone groups of the Four Times of the Day for the stairway to the Brühl Terrace in Dresden (1863–8; recast in bronze, 1908). After the death of Rietschel, Schilling helped to complete the latter’s monument to Martin Luther...

Article

American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 11 January 1839, in Webster; died 8 December 1913, in Rome.

Sculptor. Animals. Monuments, busts.

Franklin Simmons sculpted equestrian monuments and war memorials. He is known for a neo-classical marble Penelope. He was decorated by King Umberto of Italy....

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 9 October 1889, in Verona.

Painter. Portraits, nudes, landscapes.

A pupil of Alfredo Savini, Guido Trentini worked first in a realist style and then moved to neo-Classicism.

Athens (GMA): Nude

Brussels: Reading

Rome (Gal. Nazionale d'Arte Moderna): Maternity

Verona (Galleria Civica D'Arte Moderna e Contemporanea): ...

Article

Gaye Blake Roberts and Robin Reilly

English firm of ceramic manufacturers. It was founded in 1759 by Josiah Wedgwood (i) (bapt Burslem, Staffs, 12 July 1730; d Burslem, 3 Jan 1795; see §1 below) and was to become one of the most successful and influential English ceramic factories. Although during the early 19th century the factory’s fortunes declined, during the 1840s it regained its former prestige. In the late 20th century the factory was best known for its extensive production of table and ornamental wares.

Gaye Blake Roberts

Josiah Wedgwood (i) was the 12th and youngest child of Thomas Wedgwood (1685–1739) and Mary Wedgwood of the Churchyard Pottery, Burslem. He received a basic education in Newcastle-under-Lyme, but his studies were cut short by the death of his father. He immediately went to work for his eldest brother, Thomas Wedgwood (1717–73), who had inherited the family pottery, and on 11 November 1744...