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Alexandra Wedgwood

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Rosa Barovier Mentasti

Italian family of glassmakers. The family are recorded as working in Murano, Venice, as early as 1324, when Iacobello Barovier and his sons Antonio Barovier and Bartolomeo Barovier (b Murano, ?1315; d Murano, ?1380) were working there as glassmakers. The line of descent through Viviano Barovier (b Murano, ?1345; d Murano, 1399) to Iacobo Barovier (b Murano, ?1380; d Murano, 1457) led to the more noteworthy Barovier family members of the Renaissance. Iacobo was responsible for public commissions in Murano from 1425 to 1450. From as early as 1420 he was a kiln overseer, with a determining influence on the fortunes of the Barovier family.

During the 15th century Iacobo’s sons, notably Angelo Barovier (b Murano, ?1400; d Murano, 1460), and his sons Giovanni Barovier, Maria Barovier, and Marino Barovier (b Murano, before 1431; d Murano, 1485) were important glassmakers. From as early as ...

Article

Darryl Patrick

(fl 1820–50).

American architect. There is evidence that Bond was trained by Solomon Willard. Certain of Bond’s designs suggest the Greek Revival approach that Willard brought from Washington, DC. Bond’s style moved between Gothic Revival and a Neo-classical heaviness. In the Salem City Hall of 1836–37 the two-storey Greek Revival façade shows his carefully proportioned details. An example of Gothic Revival is St John’s Episcopal Church and Rectory (1841), Devens Street, Boston, which has a rather heavy granite façade dominated by a square tower with a battlemented roof-line; there are large quatrefoil windows in the walls below. In the same year Bond was called to Oberlin College in Ohio to design First Church, which had to be a Greek Revival design. He worked on Lewis Wharf (1836–40; later remodelled), Boston, where certain walls reflect his attraction to boldly massed granite surfaces. Bond’s best-known buildings during his life were at Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. These included Gore Hall (...

Article

J.-P. Esther

[Liévin]

(b Ghent, ?1640; d Ghent, ?1720)

Flemish priest, draughtsman and etcher, active also in Italy and France. While living in Wetteren (nr Ghent), he was involved in the completion of the Gothic St Michielskerk in Ghent. The construction of the western tower had been interrupted in 1566 because of religious unrest, and in 1652 steps were taken to complete it. After a Renaissance design was proposed in 1653, Cruyl submitted a drawing in Brabantine Late Gothic style (Ghent, Bib. Rijksuniv.) in 1662. His tower was to have been 134 m high, higher than the north tower of Antwerp Cathedral (1521). However, the project was never realized because of lack of funds. Although unoriginal and of an outdated style, the design had elegance and grandeur.

In 1664 Cruyl left for Rome, where he lived until c. 1670. During this time he drew many views of the city (e.g. 18 sheets, Cleveland, OH, Mus. A.) and etched ten plates representing the ...

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Roderick O’Donnell

In 

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Thomas Cocke

(b Cambridge, bapt Aug 25, 1722; d Cambridge, Sept 14, 1784).

English architect. He was an enthusiastic antiquary as well as a reliable architect; he built in both the classical style of the mid-18th century and the Gothic. He was educated at the grammar school in the shadow of King’s College Chapel; at 18 years old he was already drawing ancient Cambridge buildings, including the castle and Barnwell ‘leper chapel’. On leaving school he joined the family business, which undertook general building work and joinery; when his father died in 1749 Essex took sole control. He received a more academic architectural training from James Burrough (1691–1764), the Caius College don and the city’s leading amateur architect, and soon he became Burrough’s chief assistant and collaborator. In 1753 he married the daughter of a Cambridge bookseller, and in 1756 he was commissioned to build an eleven-bay range along the river front of Queens’ College. Only the south-west pavilion (the present Essex building) was constructed, but it established his reputation as a designer of convenient and well-lit college rooms. During the same period Essex reconstructed the decayed Jacobean ranges of Neville’s Court in Trinity College. He retained the existing structure but modernized it by making the attic into a proper second floor and removing strapwork ornament. His major classical work (his last in association with Burrough) was the new chapel and domed ante-chapel for Clare College in ...

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Alice Dugdale

(b Naples, May 14, 1718; d Naples, March 8, 1785).

Italian architect and theorist. He began his training in 1732 with the architect Martino Buoncore, whose style he later dismissed as ‘Gothic’. However, Buoncore had a good architectural library, in which Gioffredo studied the writings of Palladio, Vitruvius and Vincenzo Scamozzi. During the same period he studied with the painter Francesco Solimena, believing an understanding of the human body to be an essential part of architecture.

Gioffredo qualified as an architect in 1741, after being examined by Giovanni Antonio Medrano (b 1703), one of the kingdom’s engineers. Unfortunately his technical education was somewhat neglected, and he earned for himself the sobriquet ‘l’imprudente architetto napoletano’ after Luigi Vanvitelli was called in to work on his Villa Campolieto (1762), Resina, and the Palazzo Casacalenda (c. 1766), Naples, both of which were in danger of collapse.

Gioffredo’s architectural knowledge was largely acquired from books and from the direct study of ancient buildings. In the preface to his ...

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Kilian  

16th – 18th century, male.

Engravers.

The Kilian family has an important place in the history of engraving. From the 16th century to the 18th their name occurs on almost 700 catalogued items, chiefly portraits and also subjects from mythology, topography and religion.

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Liu Yu  

Chinese, 18th century, male.

Activec.1700.

Born in Suzhou (Jiangsu).

Painter.

Liu Yu painted figures in the style of Qiu Ying (active in the first half of the 16th century) with a great feeling of vitality. He was also skilled in the composition of trees, rocks, grass and flowers worked in elegant colours....

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Indian, 18th century, male.

Active between 1755 and 1785.

Painter.

Mir Chand imitated the art both of Persian 16th century miniatures and European artists. He frequently reworked European paintings, especially portraits, in the style of Persian miniatures, as in his Nawab Vazir of the Oudh Shuya ad Daulah...

Article

Teresa S. Watts

(b Mulhouse, Sept 28, 1727; d Kassel, bur May 1798).

Swiss architect, painter, draughtsman and writer. He served as an engineer in the French army (1748–54) and drew Gothic monuments in Spain (1748) and copied ancient vases and painted idyllic landscapes in Rome (1749–54). He then stayed from 1755 to 1759 with Horace Walpole at Strawberry Hill, where he worked as a topographical artist, portrait painter and architectural draughtsman. Having left Walpole after a domestic dispute, Müntz attempted to support himself through commissions, producing drawings of a Gothic cathedral and possibly the Alhambra for Kew Gardens, a dining room and cloister (New Haven, CT, Yale U., Lewis Walpole Lib.) for Richard Bateman, and an oval room for Lord Charlemont, to complement his vase collection. All were in the Gothic style, as were a number of architectural drawings later used in a guide by Robert Manwaring (1760). Müntz left England in 1762 and spent a year recording monuments in Greece and Jerusalem before settling in Holland, where he worked until ...

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Austrian, 18th century, male.

Born 12 April 1693, in Prague; died 28 January 1753, in Prague.

Painter.

The son of Wenzel Nosecky. A member of the Order of the Premonstratensians (Roman Catholic order of regular canons founded in the 12th century by St Norbert at Prémontré, France), he primarily painted frescoes; numerous churches and chapels in Bohemia were decorated with his paintings....

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Pomposa  

Charles B. McClendon

Italian former Benedictine abbey near the mouth of the Po River and 45 km north of Ravenna in the province of Emilia Romagna. Although first documented in ad 874, a monastic settlement probably existed there at least two centuries earlier. Pomposa rose to prominence in the 10th and 11th centuries through the support of the Holy Roman emperors. Over the course of the 14th century, a notable series of wall paintings in three different buildings were sponsored despite the monastery’s waning fortunes. In 1663 the monastic community was suppressed by papal decree. The site was secularized in 1802 and became property of the Italian state after 1870.

The proportions of the wooden-roofed basilican church, along with the polygonal outline of its main apse, reflect influence from nearby Ravenna and Classe and suggest a date in the 8th or 9th century. An elaborate pavement of mosaic and cut stone (opus sectile...

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Alexandra Wedgwood and Roderick O’Donnell

English family of artists, of French descent. (1) A. C. Pugin came to England c. 1792 and had a successful and wide-ranging career; however, his son (2) A. W. N. Pugin, the Gothic Revival architect, is the best-known member of the family. The latter’s sons (3) E. W. Pugin, Peter Paul Pugin (1851–1904) and Cuthbert Welby Pugin (1840–1928), and his grandsons Sebastian Pugin Powell (1866–1949) and Charles Henry Cuthbert Purcell (1874–1958), were all architects.

A. Wedgwood: The Pugin Family: Catalogue of the Drawings Collection of the RIBA (Farnborough, 1977)A. Wedgwood: A. W. N. Pugin and the Pugin Family: Catalogue of Architectural Drawings in the Victoria & Albert Museum (London, 1985)

Alexandra Wedgwood

(b Paris, 1769; d London, Dec 19, 1832).

Architect, illustrator, painter, draughtsman, designer and teacher. He probably came from an artistic family with claims to nobility, and he settled in England during the French Revolution, although the exact circumstances or date of his arrival are not known. On ...

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Sekkei  

Japanese, 17th – 18th century, male.

Born 1644; died 1732.

Painter.

Sekkei worked in the style of Sesshu (1420-1506) and the Chinese painter Muqi (active in the mid-13th century). He spent the whole of his career in Kyoto.

Article

Chinese, 18th century, male.

Active probably active during the reign of the Quing emperor Qianlong (1736-1796).

Born in Wujiang (Jiangsu).

Painter.

Wang Xian was a landscape painter in the style of Dong Yuan and Juran, the great 10th century landscape artists.

Berlin: Pine Tree and Flowering Plum Tree...

Article

R. Windsor Liscombe

(b Norwich, Aug 31, 1778; d Cambridge, Aug 31, 1839).

English architect, writer and collector . A ‘profound knowledge of the principles both of Grecian and Gothic architecture’ generated the career of Wilkins, who was also remembered as ‘a most amiable and honourable man’. He promoted the archaeological Greek Revival in Britain and a Tudor Gothic style. More intellectual than imaginative, his architecture was distinguished by a deft and disciplined manipulation of select historical motifs, a refined sense of scale and intelligent planning, outmoded by the time of his death. Besides his architecture and extensive antiquarian writings, Wilkins assembled an eclectic art collection and owned, or had a financial interest in, several theatres in East Anglia.

The theatres and Wilkins’s architectural bent were inherited from his father, a Norwich architect also called William Wilkins (1751–1815), who assisted Humphry Repton from 1785 to 1796 and established a successful domestic practice, mainly in the Gothick style. His eldest son was educated at Norwich School, then at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, from which he graduated Sixth Wrangler in ...

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Swiss, 18th century, male.

Died 1768, in Basel.

Painter. Portraits.

Zuber was probably from Schaffhausen. A painter by the same name was known there in the 15th century. This artist executed the portrait of Noble Tribune Joh. Casparus Stockarus. It was signed J. V. Zuber Pinx...