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Maria Concepción García Sáiz

(b Mexico, c. 1646; d Mexico, 1716).

Mexican painter. He is thought to have been the teacher of such painters as Juan Rodríguez Juarez and José de Ibarra. His many works for the cathedral of Mexico City include (for the sacristy) the large-scale Assumption and the Coronation of the Virgin (both 1689) and the Entry into Jerusalem (1691). For the same cathedral he also painted the Vision of the Apocalypse, other versions of the Assumption and the Coronation of the Virgin (destr. 1967), and the groups of angels for the retables of the Angel de la Guarda and Angel Custodio. Other religious paintings by Correa are in the chapel of the Rosary in the convent of Azcapotzalco, Mexico City, and Durango Cathedral, which includes works based on models by Rubens. Some interesting works by Correa in Spain include a series of ten canvases dedicated to the Life of the Virgin (Antequera, Mus. Mun.) and the ...

Article

Teresa Gisbert

(b Cochabamba, c. 1665; d Potosí, c. 1730).

Bolivian painter. In 1693 he was working in Potosí, Bolivia, the Spanish empire’s largest city and most important centre of mining. He was highly esteemed and developed a characteristic style that emphasizes the facial features. His images of saints, mystics, and ascetics reflect the religious ideals of the Hispano-American Baroque. He signed many of his paintings and portrayed himself in some of them, for example the Last Judgement (1708; Potosí, S Lorenzo).

In his early works he depicted ascetic saints famed for their acts of charity, such as Fray Pedro de Alcántara and St Juan de Dios (both La Paz, Mus. N. A.), using grey tones. At the end of the 17th century he incorporated a wider range of colours into his paintings and began to work on a larger scale, as in the Last Judgement, which includes scenes of the Glory and Hell. This theme became popular throughout the Viceroyalty, with compositions of this type appearing in rural highland churches, such as those at Carabuco and Casquiaviri. Holguín later began his series of ...

Article

Maria Concepción García Sáiz

(b Guadalajara, 1688; d Mexico, 1756).

Mexican painter. His earliest known work belongs to the 1720s, after which time he produced numerous religious paintings, including a series of panels devoted to female figures in the Gospels such as the Woman Taken in Adultery, the Samaritan Woman and Mary Magdalene in Simon’s House (all Mexico City, Pin. Virreinal). Other works include St Anthony, the Dream of St Joseph, a Pietà, the Coronation of St Rosa and the Betrothal of the Virgin (all Mexico City Cathedral), as well as numerous works in various provincial Mexican churches and museums, such as Christ Among the Doctors, the Death of the Virgin, the Assumption of the Virgin, the Immaculate Conception, the Flagellation and St Joseph with Two Benefactors (all Zacatecas, Mus. Guadalupe). In the cathedral of Puebla are his Betrothal of the Virgin, the Assumption of the Virgin, St Michael and St Joseph, and in Querétaro are his Trinity, Circumcision, Ecce homo...

Article

Maria Concepción García Sáiz

[Xuarez]

Mexican family of painters. Luis Juarez (b c. 1585; d Mexico City, c. 1638) painted in the Mannerist style of the Spanish painters settled in Mexico, such as Baltasar de Echave Orio and Alonso Vázquez, although his figures are softer than those of his teachers. He began working in the first decade of the 17th century. His signed St Teresa (Guadalajara, Mus. Guadalajara) dates from that time and his St Anthony of Padua and the Ascension (both Querétaro, Mus. Reg.) from 1610. In 1611 he was commissioned to make the triumphal arch for the reception of the Viceroy of New Spain, Fray García Guerra. During the 1620s he painted the retables in the church of Jesús María, Mexico City, and in S Agustín, Puebla. The finest of his numerous religious works are the Annunciation, the Agony in the Garden, the Visitation, the Archangel Michael, and St Raphael (all Mexico City, Pin. Virreinal); the ...

Article

Ricardo Descalzi

(b Quito, ?end of the 17th century; d Quito, May 31, 1773).

Ecuadorean wood-carver and painter. He was a pupil of José Olmos, and he set up his workshop in Quito facing the Franciscan monastery for which he worked. A versatile artist, he was also active as a gold- and silversmith, printer, and gunsmith. In 1736 Legarda carved his masterful Virgin of the Apocalypse or Winged Virgin of Quito (Quito, S Francisco), which was inspired by a painting by Miguel de Santiago. Legarda’s fine work reflects the mystical fervour of the legend it depicts. The twisting figure of the Virgin, trampling the head of a dragon underfoot, is balanced by her outspread arms and wings. Her face reflects the beauty of the mestiza, the mixed-race woman of Quito. Elsewhere in Quito, Legarda carved the Baroque altarpieces for the church of La Merced, the hospital and the churches of the Carmen Moderno and Cantuña, as well as the Crucifixion in this last church. In ...

Article

Jorge Luján-Muñoz

(b Santiago de Guatemala [now Antigua], July 15, 1694; d Santiago de Guatemala, Dec 15, 1739).

Guatemalan painter. A son of the master painter Tomás de la Vega Merlo (b c. 1659; d 26 April 1749), he was the most important Guatemalan painter of his generation and the one by whom there are the most identified works. In 1730 he married Lucía de Gálvez, daughter of the master craftsman Antonio Joseph de Gálvez. In 1737 he began a series of eleven paintings of the Passion for the church of the Calvario (six, in situ; five, Antigua, Mus. Colon.). Two were finished by an unnamed pupil in 1740, and the general quality of the series is not high, perhaps because of poor retouching. In his painting of St Ignatius of Loyola (Antigua, Mus. Colon.), which is probably based on an engraving, the saint is depicted preaching, against a graceful background of angels in the upper part. In the Capuchin church in Guatemala City is his ...

Article

Magali M. Carrera

[casta paintings].

Paintings that depict the offspring resulting from the unions of Spaniards and Indians, Spaniards and Blacks, as well as Blacks and Indians who inhabited 18th-century New Spain (Mexico). Typically produced in sets of 12–16 separate panels, although single panels are known, the paintings were produced predominantly in New Spain (Mexico City and Puebla). These images located race at the intersection of the physical, economic, and social spaces of late colonial Mexico.

Social identity in colonial Mexico was embedded in the notion that the kingdom of New Spain consisted of two separate Republics: república de los españoles and república de los indios. New Spain, however, was populated by various racial and ethnic groups, with the three most commonly recognized of these groups being Indians, Spaniards, and black Africans, who were brought to New Spain to fulfil certain labour needs. The mixing of blood produced a tertiary, intermediate people identified as castas...

Article

Maria Concepción García Sáiz

(b Mexico City, c. 1644; d Mexico City, 1714).

Mexican painter. He worked in a decorative Baroque style, based on the primacy of light and colour over accuracy of form. In 1675 he painted the altarpiece of the church of S Rosa de Lima, Huaquechula, Puebla, and subsequently worked until 1681 on the altarpiece of the church of S Rosa de Lima, Azcapotzalco. On several occasions between 1683 and 1686 he produced paintings for Mexico City Cathedral, including the Apotheosis of St Michael, the Woman of the Apocalypse, the Church Militant and Triumphant and the Triumph of the Eucharist (all in situ). In 1686 he worked on the triumphal arch dedicated to the Conde de la Monclova, Melchor Portocarrero and Lasso de la Vega. This was followed by the Apotheosis of the Eucharist in the Cúpula de los Reyes, Puebla Cathedral, and a new version of the Church Militant and Triumphant for Guadalajara Cathedral. In 1691 Villalpando painted a series on the ...