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A. Gerhardt

Benedictine abbey on the River Enns in Styria, Austria. It was founded in the mid-11th century by Bishop Gebhard from Salzburg, endowed by St Henna von Gurk, Gräfin von Friessach (d 1045), and settled by Benedictine monks from St Peter’s, Salzburg under Abbot Isingrin. The Romanesque minster (consecrated 1074), which was dedicated to St Blaise, was famous for its marble columns and was rebuilt after a fire in 1152; a Gothic choir was added in 1276–86. The present church incorporates Romanesque side doors as well as other fragments. The abbey became an important cultural centre with a renowned scriptorium. Amongst the many famous scholars there was Abbot Engelbert of Admont (reg 1297–1327). From 1121 to the 16th century a convent was attached to the abbey. Under the abbots Mathias Preininger (reg 1615–28) and Urban Weber (reg 1628–59) the whole establishment was transformed in the Baroque style, and the church was rebuilt (...


Italian, 17th – 18th century, male.

Sculptor, founder, designer of ornamental architectural features. Religious subjects.

London, 3 May 1977: Baptismal Fonts (bronze, h. 14¼ ins/36.5 cm, diam. 17 ins/43.2 cm) GBP 12,000


Lucília Verdelho da Costa

Cistercian abbey in Portugal. The abbey, dedicated to S Maria, was founded as part of the policy of repopulation and territorial improvement of the first king of Portugal, Alfonso I (reg 1139–85), who in 1152 granted a large area of land to St Bernard of Clairvaux by a charter known as the Carta dos Coutos (Lisbon, Arquiv. N.). Work on the monastery started in 1158 and adhered to the rigid precepts of the Order. Although the exterior was extended and altered in the 17th and 18th centuries, especially the Baroque façade of the church, the interior essentially preserves its original Early Gothic appearance.

W. Beckford: Recollections of an Excursion to the Monasteries of Alcobaça and Batalha (London, 1835/R 1972) M. V. Natividade: Ignez de Castro e Pedro o Cru perante a iconografia dos seus túmulos (Lisbon, 1910) E. Korrodi: Alcobaça: Estudo histórico, arqueológico e artístico da Real Abadia de Alcobaça...


French, 18th century, male.

Born 1679, in Paris; died February 1748, in Paris.

Painter. Religious subjects, landscapes, architectural views.

Gabriel's father Étienne was his only teacher, passing on both his good and bad qualities. He exhibited at the Salon de Paris from 1737 to 1747...


British, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1754, in Norwich, baptised 5 June 1754; died 21 or 6 December 1828, in Hatfield, in very reduced circumstances.

Engraver (etching and stippling), illustrator, printmaker, draughtsman. Portraits, architecture, mythology, religious subjects.

The son of John Baldrey the Elder, John Baldrey the Younger entered the Royal Academy School to study engraving in ...


Italian, 18th century, male.

Born c. 1675, in Rome; died c. 1730.

Engraver (burin), art dealer. Religious subjects, architectural views.

Worked initially under the tutelage of his father, Pietro Santo Bartoli. It is probable that this is the same artist as F. Bartoli who produced coloured drawings based on religious works in St Peter's in Rome on behalf of the English art collector John Talman. The volume containing these engraved illustrations has been in the British Museum in London since ...


Italian, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 13 May 1737, in Rovigo; died 1813.

Painter, designer of ornamental architectural features, fresco artist. Church decoration.

Son of Sante Baseggio the Elder; travelled to Ferrara with his brother Giuseppe at an early age and studied there under Giuseppe Facchinetti and the architect Antonio Foschini. He decorated façades and churches in Rovigo with architectural frescoes....


Austrian, 18th century, male.

Born 1712, in Kufstein (Tyrol); died 1761, in Augsburg.

Painter, fresco artist, engraver, draughtsman. Religious subjects, landscapes, architectural views.

Johann Wolfgang Baumgartner initially painted landscapes, but went on to become a distinguished painter of architectural subjects. He executed the frescoes for the churches in Gersthofen and Bergen where he painted episodes from ...


Flemish School, 18th century, male.

Born 27 April 1699, in Antwerp; died 10 September 1768, in Antwerp.

Sculptor, architect. Religious subjects.

Jan van Baurscheit the Younger was the son of Jan Pieter van Baurscheit the Elder. He was accepted as a member of the Guild of St Luke in ...


German, 18th century, male.

Born in Wallerstein, baptised 10 December 1744; died 5 February 1813, in New York City.

Painter, architect. Portraits, miniatures, religious themes, architectural drawings.

William Berczy Moll grew up in Vienna. He studied in Italy and began his career as a painter of miniature portraits. He was working in London when he was recruited to join a group of German colonists on a voyage to New York in ...



D. J. Stuart-Fox

Balinese Hindu temple (pura) complex. It is situated on the south-western flank of the volcano Gunung Agung, Bali’s highest mountain, in the north-east of the island. Associated probably since prehistoric times with the Lord of the Mountain, now identified with the Hindu god Shiva, it has been a dynastic temple of several royal families since at least the 15th century. The complex consists of 22 temples, spread along three parallel ridges over a distance of more than a kilometre. The complex was not planned as an entity but seems to have been constructed piecemeal, and the overall structure that links the temples is more ritual and symbolic than physical. The annual cycle of more than 70 rituals culminates in the enormous centennial Ekadasa Rudra ceremony.

The symbolic and ritual centre of the complex is Pura Penataran Agung, the largest temple, which over the centuries has undergone numerous changes. Its 57 separate structures are arranged on six terraces. Originating probably in a simple prehistoric sanctuary, it has a terraced form suggesting a series of successive enlargements. The earliest structures were probably simple shrines and stone seats, represented now in developed form by the two uppermost shrines dedicated to the Lord of the Mountain. On current evidence, the pagoda-like shrines (...


Ramón Gutiérrez

(b nr Rome, 1677; d Córdoba, Argentina, Dec 25, 1740).

Italian architect, active in Argentina. Having studied architecture in Rome, in 1716 he joined the Jesuit Order. In 1717 he travelled with Giovanni Battista Primoli to Buenos Aires, subsequently settling in Córdoba. He was an able designer with a considerable theoretical knowledge of architecture and often worked in collaboration with Primoli, who completed many of his designs. Bianchi’s purified, classical style contained some Mannerist tendencies, and its implementation helped to increase the level of craftsmanship in architecture in the region. In 1719 he set up the lime kilns at La Calera, near Córdoba, so enabling an improvement in the building techniques of the region. In 1720 he moved to Buenos Aires, where he directed work on the Jesuit Colegio and later completed the construction of their church. Other important projects in Buenos Aires were his designs for the churches of Nuestra Señora del Pilar (Recoletos), Belén, S Catalina, La Merced, and S Francisco as well as the façade of the cathedral (all ...


Italian, 18th century, male.

Born 1728, in Vienna; died after 1778, in Florence.

Painter, draughtsman. Architectural views, interiors, church interiors. Wall decorations, church decoration.

Son of Giuseppe Bibiena and grandson of Ferdinando Bibiena, at the age of 20 Carlo Bibiena entered the service of Frederick, Margrave of Bayreuth and worked alongside his father on the construction of the new theatre there. At the invitation of the Elector of Bavaria, he left for Munich in ...


Italian, 17th – 18th century, male.

Born 18 August 1657, in Bologna; died 3 January 1743, in Bologna.

Painter, draughtsman, decorative designer, architect. Architectural views, church interiors, harbour scenes. Church decoration, stage sets.

Son of Giovanni Maria Galli, Ferdinando Bibiena studied alongside his father under Carlo Cignani and went on to work for the architect Troili (known as Paradosso) and for Mannini and Aldrovandini. His mentor Cignani recommended him to Duke Ranuccio Farnese in Parma, who appointed him first painter and architect to his court. He remained there under the Duke's successor Francesco, dividing the next 24 years of his life between Parma and Piacenza. His work includes the decoration of the Duke of Mirandola's Casino della Motta (in collaboration with his brother Francesco); two chapels in the Jesuit church in Reggio; a chapel in Parma, together with the façade and a chamber in the ducal palace; a chapel in the Palazzo Maggiore; and the Cappella Maggiore in the church of S Sepolcro. In Piacenza, he painted the oratory ceiling in the church of S Vincenzo, scenes for the convent of S Sisto, and cupolas for the Chiesa della Morte....


Italian, 17th – 18th century, male.

Born 12 December 1659, in Bologna; died 20 January 1739, in Bologna.

Painter, architect. Religious subjects.

Son of Giovanni Maria Bibiena, Francesco Bibiena first studied under Pasinelli, then under Cignani. His artistic career began around 1679. In 1682 he settled in Piacenza, where he painted in the ducal palace. He then moved to Parma, where he worked on the palaces of the Marchese della Rosa and the Marchese di Surania. With his brother Ferdinando, he also worked for the Duke of Mirandola. His work took him to Rome and Mantua (where he was an architect for the Gonzaga family), then to Genoa, Naples and Vienna. In the Austrian capital he was retained by Emperor Joseph I and commissioned to build a theatre....


Italian, 18th century, male.

Born 5 January 1696, in Parma; died 1756, in Berlin.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman (including ink/wash), decorative designer, architect. Architectural views, interiors. Stage sets, church decoration, theatre decoration.

Second son and pupil of Ferdinando Bibiena, Giuseppe Bibiena accompanied his father to Barcelona and on his appointment to the court of Vienna in ...


Christian Norberg-Schulz

Norwegian architectural and furniture design partnership formed in 1922 by Gudolf Blakstad (b Gjerpen, 19 May 1893; d Oslo, 1986) and Herman Munthe-Kaas (b Christiania [now Oslo], 25 May 1890; d Oslo, 5 March 1970). Blakstad was awarded his diploma as an architect at the Norwegian Institute of Technology in Trondheim in 1916. He collaborated with Jens Dunker on the New Theatre, Oslo, from 1919 to 1929. After a preliminary training in Christiania, Munthe-Kaas finished his education at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm in 1919.

From the beginning of their careers Blakstad and Munthe-Kaas played a leading role in Norwegian architecture. After studying in Italy in the early 1920s, they advocated Neo-classicism in architectural projects, furniture designs and writings. In 1922 they won the competition for the new Town Hall in Haugesund (1924–31), a major work of 20th-century Norwegian Neo-classicism. Above a powerfully rusticated basement, the long office wing with its regular fenestration contrasts with the higher City Council Hall, accentuated by pairs of monumental, free-standing columns. In general the effect is of robust strength and an exciting interplay of horizontals and verticals....


French, 18th century, male.

Active in Nantes.

Painter, architect. Still-lifes. Church decoration.

Blo worked on the high altar of the church at Vay in 1730, and completed the decoration of the chancel in 1738. He was head of the art school around 1739.

Paris, 29 Sept 1992...


(b Toulouse, Nov 12, 1743; d Toulouse, Jan 31, 1804).

French painter and architect. He was the son of Guillaume Cammas (1698–1777), a painter and architect in Toulouse, who is known principally for having designed the first municipal theatre (1737) in Toulouse and the façade of the Capitole (1749–52), as well as for having carried out the decoration of the Salle des Illustres at the Hôtel de Ville. Lambert-François-Thérèse Cammas studied at the Académie Royale de Peinture in Toulouse, where in 1765 he won the Grand Prix with an Allegory on the Death of the Dauphin (Paris, Ecole B.-A.). The prize money was used to finance a trip to Italy. Cammas remained in Rome from 1767 to 1771, in 1770 being admitted to the Accademia di S Luca with the Accession of Pope Clement XIV (Rome, Accad. N. S Luca). In Rome, Cammas made many architectural studies and drew antique remains, but he was also interested in the problem of restoring ancient monuments. He may have carried out some architectural work; a chapel at the church of Pátrica, near Frosinone, is attributed to him....


Italian, 17th – 18th century, male.

Born 1672, in Rome; died after 1720.

Painter. Religious subjects, architectural views.

A pupil of Giuseppe Marchi, he later worked under the direction of Andrea Pozzo.

Chambéry (MBA): Moses Saved from the Waters

Milan, 21 May 1981...