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Shauna Goodwin

Japanese school of secular professional ink painters active from the end of the 15th century. It was organized along hereditary lines within the Kanō family family, who guarded their painting traditions closely and passed the leadership of the school from father to son or to the nearest male relative (for illustration of family tree see Kanō family). Young men of artistic talent from outside the Kanō family were also taken on as apprentices, and in exceptional cases, such as those of Kanō Sanraku and Kanō Kōi (see Kanō family, §8), they were adopted into the family and granted the right to establish studios of their own. In rare instances women were recognized as members of the family, as in the case of Kanō Yukinobu (see Kanō family, §15). The hereditary apprentice system permitted Kanō masters to undertake enormous painting projects that were possible only with the collaboration of a team of assistants; it also encouraged the preservation and transmission of the practices of the Kanō school over many generations....



Charles B. McClendon

Italian former Benedictine abbey near the mouth of the Po River and 45 km north of Ravenna in the province of Emilia Romagna. Although first documented in ad 874, a monastic settlement probably existed there at least two centuries earlier. Pomposa rose to prominence in the 10th and 11th centuries through the support of the Holy Roman emperors. Over the course of the 14th century, a notable series of wall paintings in three different buildings were sponsored despite the monastery’s waning fortunes. In 1663 the monastic community was suppressed by papal decree. The site was secularized in 1802 and became property of the Italian state after 1870.

The proportions of the wooden-roofed basilican church, along with the polygonal outline of its main apse, reflect influence from nearby Ravenna and Classe and suggest a date in the 8th or 9th century. An elaborate pavement of mosaic and cut stone (opus sectile...


Quitman E. Phillips

School of Japanese painting. It flourished from the early 15th century until well into the 19th. Painters of the school (see Tosa family) have long been recognized primarily as the supreme latter-day masters of Yamatoe (see Japan, §VI, 3, (iii)), but extant works suggest that they were considerably more versatile. Tosa artists painted Buddhist icons and bird-and-flower subjects based on Chinese models as well as native ones. They also sometimes incorporated the coarser styles of brushwork associated in Japan with Chinese painting of the Song period (ad 960–1279) and later.

Historians of the 17th and 18th centuries ascribed considerable antiquity to the name Tosa, but the surname probably began early in the 15th century as a title of governorship of the province of Tosa (now Kōchi Prefect.) on the island of Shikoku. The genealogy of the family before the late 15th century is unknown. In the early 15th century, a number of painters of different surname, including ...