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Article

A. Gerhardt

Benedictine abbey on the River Enns in Styria, Austria. It was founded in the mid-11th century by Bishop Gebhard from Salzburg, endowed by St Henna von Gurk, Gräfin von Friessach (d 1045), and settled by Benedictine monks from St Peter’s, Salzburg under Abbot Isingrin. The Romanesque minster (consecrated 1074), which was dedicated to St Blaise, was famous for its marble columns and was rebuilt after a fire in 1152; a Gothic choir was added in 1276–86. The present church incorporates Romanesque side doors as well as other fragments. The abbey became an important cultural centre with a renowned scriptorium. Amongst the many famous scholars there was Abbot Engelbert of Admont (reg 1297–1327). From 1121 to the 16th century a convent was attached to the abbey. Under the abbots Mathias Preininger (reg 1615–28) and Urban Weber (reg 1628–59) the whole establishment was transformed in the Baroque style, and the church was rebuilt (...

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Lucília Verdelho da Costa

Cistercian abbey in Portugal. The abbey, dedicated to S Maria, was founded as part of the policy of repopulation and territorial improvement of the first king of Portugal, Alfonso I (reg 1139–85), who in 1152 granted a large area of land to St Bernard of Clairvaux by a charter known as the Carta dos Coutos (Lisbon, Arquiv. N.). Work on the monastery started in 1158 and adhered to the rigid precepts of the Order. Although the exterior was extended and altered in the 17th and 18th centuries, especially the Baroque façade of the church, the interior essentially preserves its original Early Gothic appearance.

W. Beckford: Recollections of an Excursion to the Monasteries of Alcobaça and Batalha (London, 1835/R 1972) M. V. Natividade: Ignez de Castro e Pedro o Cru perante a iconografia dos seus túmulos (Lisbon, 1910) E. Korrodi: Alcobaça: Estudo histórico, arqueológico e artístico da Real Abadia de Alcobaça...

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Věra Naňková

(b ?Laino d’Intelvi, c. 1665; d Litomyšl, Bohemia, ?March 13, 1720).

Italian architect, active in Bohemia. The son of Lorenzo Alliprandi (d c. 1712), a stucco artist who worked in Vienna, he served his apprenticeship with the master builder Francesco Martinelli (1651–1708) in Vienna from 1685 to 1688 and is recorded as working in Bohemia in 1690 as a foreman. From 1696 to 1702 Alliprandi was in the service of Count Heřman Jakub Černín (1659–1710) as an architect. At the same time, and also later, he worked for the Counts Pachta, Přehořovský, Kaiserstein, Špork and others. In 1706 he was appointed military engineer in Prague, where he acquired citizenship of the Malá Strana quarter in 1709, from which year he was in the service of Count František Václav Trautmansdorf (1676–1753). In 1712 he also served as a military engineer in Cheb.

Alliprandi brought to Bohemia an interesting personal reinterpretation of the achievements and inspirations of such Viennese masters as Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach, Domenico Martinelli and Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt. His designs for such buildings as the country house at Liblice (...

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(b Palermo, 1643; d Palermo, 1732).

Italian architect. He was called to Rome in the 1670s by his Order, the Padri Ministri degl’Infermi, to work first as an assistant to Carlo Bizzaccheri then as supervisor on the enlargement of the convent of the Crociferi. Returning to Palermo by 1685, he produced work that showed Roman influences. His studies for the façade of the monumental church of La Pietà (1678–1723), with which he became associated in the late 1680s, fuse elements from S Andrea della Valle and Girolamo Rainaldi’s S Maria in Campitelli, both in Rome. While subduing the horizontal plasticity of the Roman façades, however, Amato intensified the vertical stress of his own: his free-standing superimposed columns are placed at the sides like a partially drawn-back screen, an effect enhanced by his use of the contrasting colours of tufa and Billiemi limestone. The façade’s circular window, a clear medieval reference, is characteristically Sicilian and distinguishes the building from contemporary Roman design. The interior decoration (1690s) is striking for its use of vernacular forms and such gilded metalwork as the nun’s grille at the west end, which rises like an elaborate fan into the grand barrel vault. The discrepancy between the broad lower and narrow upper storeys of S Teresa alla Kalsa (...

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Helen M. Hills

(b Ciminna, Jan 24, 1634; d Palermo, July 3, 1714).

Italian architect, writer and painter. He trained as a priest in Palermo and entered the Padri Ministri degl’Infermi. Another member of this Order was Giacomo Amato, with whom he worked, although they were not related. While serving as a chaplain Amato studied geometry, architecture, optics and engraving. His earliest known artistic work is a painting on copper of the Miracle of S Rosalia (1663), the patron saint of Palermo. After 1686 he created many works of an ephemeral character. For the feasts of S Rosalia and for important political events he provided designs for lavish triumphal chariots, probably developed from those by Jacques Callot, triumphal arches and other ceremonial apparatus set up on principal roads and piazzas, and he painted hangings, papier-mâché models and massive altarpieces for the cathedral. These works influenced Amato’s permanent architecture. The spiral columns of the campanile of S Giuseppe dei Teatini, Palermo, recall the festival designs of ...

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Leonor Ferrão

(bapt Lisbon, Sept 30, 1643; d Lisbon, Nov 25, 1712).

Portuguese architect and master mason. He worked in the context of a national tradition marked by Mannerism and the Plain style (see Portugal, Republic of, §II, 2), but he also contributed to the progressive acceptance of new Baroque concepts of space in Portugal, as shown in the use of polygonal plans. He gave a festive and sumptuous treatment to the interiors of his buildings, using inlay of coloured jasper or marble, which is sometimes combined with carved and gilded woodwork (talha) and blue and white azulejos (glazed tiles). Antunes probably learnt these intarsia techniques from the examples of the decorations (c. 1665–92; destr. 1755) of the nave and chancel of the church of the convent of S Antão-o-Novo, Lisbon, and those (1668–c. 1707) of the sacristy of the convent church of S Vicente de Fora, Lisbon. In 1670 Antunes was admitted to the Irmandade de S José dos Carpinteiros e Pedreiros in Lisbon, which gave him professional status as master mason. In ...

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(b Madrid, 1664; d Madrid, Feb 15, 1726).

Spanish architect, painter and writer. He was trained in architecture by the Jesuits and in painting by Claudio Coello and worked mainly as an architect. Two overdoors showing multiple allegorical scenes of the Battle of Lepanto (1721; Madrid, Pal. Arzobisp.) and a St Barbara (1723; Madrid, Mus. Lázaro Galdiano) reveal Ardemans as a talented painter working in the tradition of Francisco Rizi, Juan Carreño de Miranda and Francisco de Herrera the younger, and partially influenced by Luca Giordano. His debt to Coello is apparent in a ceiling fresco attributed to him in the Capilla del Cristo de los Dolores of the Venerable Orden Tercera de San Francisco, Madrid, which shows St Francis riding in a chariot of fire with figures watching from a balcony. Also attributed to Ardemans is the portrait of Pedro Atanasio Bocanegra (c. 1689; Granada, Pal. Arzobisp.)

As an architect, Ardemans belongs to a period of transition, continuing into the 18th century the Baroque tradition of the Madrid school. He worked in Granada (...

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Ulrich Knapp

(b Fürstenwalde, March 15, 1666; d Dresden, March 16, 1738).

German master carpenter and architect . He is first recorded as a journeyman carpenter in Alt-Dresden in 1693. On 20 October 1705, because of his acknowledged structural expertise in timber buildings and his technical abilities, he was appointed master carpenter to the city of Dresden, with the proviso that he must prepare the customary master drawings. He subsequently became municipal clerk of works (Saxon dialect, Bauvoigt) in Dresden (1722), and in later years he referred to himself as an architect. About 1711 he built two palaces in Dresden for the counts Beichling (later the Hotel de Saxe and the British Hotel; destr. 1945), the façades of which contrasted with the more restrained domestic architecture then common in Dresden; each was of four main storeys, two articulated by a giant order of pilasters (three-quarters columns in the case of the Hotel de Saxe), and many of the windows were topped with ornate, carved pediments. Bähr is best known, however, for his Protestant churches. One of the earliest was the parish church of Loschwitz (...

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Baroque  

Gauvin Bailey and Jillian Lanthier

Term used to describe one of the first genuinely global styles of art and architecture in the Western canon, extending from its birthplace in Bologna and Rome to places as far-flung as France, Sweden, Russia, Latin America, colonial Asia (Goa, Macao), and Africa (Mozambique, Angola), even manifesting itself in hybrid forms in non-European cultures such as Qing China (the Yuanming yuan pleasure gardens of the Qianlong Emperor) or Ottoman Turkey (in a style often called Türk Barok). The Baroque also embraced a very wide variety of art forms, from the more traditional art historical media of painting, sculpture, and architecture to public spectacles, fireworks, gardens, and objects of everyday use, often combining multiple media into a single object or space in a way that blurred traditional disciplinary boundaries. More so than the Renaissance and Mannerist stylistic movements which preceded it, Baroque was a style of the people as well as one of élites, and scholars are only recently beginning to explore the rich material culture of the Baroque, from chapbooks (Italy) and votive paintings (central Europe and Latin America) to farm furniture (Sweden) and portable oratories (Brazil). Although its precise chronological boundaries will probably always be a matter of dispute, the Baroque era roughly covers the period from the 1580s to the early 18th century when, in places such as France and Portugal, the ...

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W. Georg Rizzi

(Maria Nicolao)

(b Bologna, 1675; d Vienna, March 4, 1735).

Italian architect, decorative artist, stage designer and painter, active also in Austria. He trained as a quadratura painter in Bologna, where he was a pupil of Giovanni Gioseffo dal Sole. He was recorded as working as a figure and quadratura painter in Vienna for Prince Montecuccoli in 1695, and shortly afterwards for Count Heřman Jakub Czernin in both Vienna and Prague. He soon became a project designer, when his responsibilities expanded to include architecture. Beduzzi’s first project was probably the design of furnishings for the summer sacristy of Melk Abbey Church (from 1701; see Melk Abbey, §2), which matched the European High Baroque style of the building. Later he designed furnishings and frescoes for the abbey church itself (1711–22) although, contrary to common belief, he did not design the high altar and doorway. He initially painted his frescoes himself, but later these were entrusted to his associates, as in the case of the pilgrimage church of Maria Taferl, near Melk, or to specialists employed by those commissioning the work. Beduzzi’s design for the illusionistic decoration of the church of St Peter (...

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Hans-Peter Wittwer

(Battista)

(fl late 17th century–early 18th).

Swiss-Italian stuccoist and architect. He drew up the plans for the abbey church of Muri (1694–7), Switzerland, which is regarded as the consummation of the centrally planned church and one of the most beautiful Baroque buildings in Switzerland. Bettini’s scheme involved reconstructing the cruciform Romanesque abbey church. The twin towers and the low choir spanned by a Gothic lierne vault were retained, but the nave was converted into an octagonal rotunda with transeptal chapels. The ends of the former aisles, at the west and east, lie outside the octagon and are used to form galleries. The eight arches defining the octagon are of equal height but unequal width. Uniformity of height is obtained in the narrower, diagonal arches by raising the imposts rather than by stilting the arches. A large saucer dome, with stucco ornamentation by Bettini, covers the rotunda, admitting light, via penetrations, from semicircular windows set on a slightly curving entablature inside, supported by folded pilasters. Bettini’s reputation is based on evidence that he produced designs for the building, while the more famous architect ...

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John Varriano

(b Rome, April 13, 1655; d Rome, Feb 1721).

Italian architect. According to Missirini, he trained in the studio of Carlo Fontana (iv). There is also reason to suppose that Bizzacheri was associated early in his career with the late work of Carlo Rainaldi, such as S Maria di Montesanto, Rome, executed at a time when the elderly Rainaldi had himself repudiated the livelier style of his earlier years. In spite of these formative experiences Bizzacheri’s work seems relatively unencumbered by the exacting academic style of either Fontana or the late work of Rainaldi. Instead, in early commissions such as the Vivaldi Chapel (1679) in S Maria di Montesanto or the convent of S Maria Maddalena (1680–84), both in Rome, there are echoes of the works of Francesco Borromini. Bizzacheri was one of the first architects to adopt the freely handled pediments and rich ornamental vocabulary of Borromini’s Oratory of S Filippo Neri or S Carlo alle Quattro Fontane—motifs that eventually achieved widespread popularity among Rococo architects of the 18th century. In the corridor leading to the convent of S Maria Maddalena, Bizzacheri demonstrated his fondness for penetrating solids and moulding space with superimposed arches, curved walls and stucco in a manner equally prophetic of the Rococo. His perforated and imaginatively embellished screen wall (mid-1690s) at the Villa Aldobrandini, Frascati, is another example of his ability to infuse utilitarian structures with a sprightly character....

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Volker Helas

(b Paris, Oct 1670; d Dresden, Jan 3, 1745).

French architect and engineer, active in the Netherlands and Germany. He trained as a civil and military architect in Paris, although it is not known who taught him. As a Protestant he left France after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685) and went to the Netherlands, where he entered the service of William III, Prince of Orange (reg 1672–1702). After William’s accession to the throne of England he followed him there (1689) and became a captain in the artillery and engineering corps, in which capacity he was present at the Battle of the Boyne (1690); he also devoted himself to the study of civil architecture and produced a scheme for Greenwich Hospital (?1694–5; unexecuted) influenced by Libéral Bruand’s plan for the Hôtel des Invalides (1671–6), Paris.

In 1699 de Bodt accepted an invitation to serve Frederick III, Elector of Brandenburg, who became Frederick I, King of Prussia, in ...

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Cynthia Lawrence

[Jean-François]

(b Mechelen, c. 1650; d Mechelen, 1734).

Flemish sculptor and architect. He was a pupil of Lucas Faydherbe, from whom he absorbed the influence of Rubens. Boeckstuyns became a master in the Mechelen Guild of St Luke in 1680 but may have continued to collaborate with Faydherbe. Among his commissions for Mechelen churches are three wooden confessionals with allegorical figures (1690) and the wooden gable (1712) for Faydherbe’s earlier high altar for the basilica of Onze-Lieve-Vrouw van Hanswijk and numerous works for the Begijnhof Church, including the north interior portal (c. 1700), the communion rails (1710) and the wooden confessionals (also attributed to Faydherbe). In 1690 he collaborated with the Mechelen sculptors Frans Langhemans and Adam Frans van der Meulen on the wooden high altar of Onze-Lieve-Vrouw-over-de-Dyle. Boeckstuyns was perhaps responsible for the wooden pulpit in St Rombouts (also attributed to Michiel van der Voort I) as well as the wooden tabernacle for the altar of the Holy Sacrament (...

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Camillo Semenzato

(b Belluno, July 20, 1662; d Belluno, Oct 25, 1732).

Italian sculptor and draughtsman. He worked almost exclusively in wood. His first teacher was his father, Jacopo Brustolon (d 1709), also a sculptor, and he then trained with the painter Agostino Ridolfi (1646–1727). In 1677 Andrea was sent to Venice to the workshop of Filippo Parodi, to whose elegance, dynamism and technical virtuosity he was always indebted, although he soon established his own style. Brustolon came from an alpine area that had a long tradition of craftsmanship in wood. His achievement was to transpose techniques that had been associated with everyday craftsmanship on to the highest artistic level.

Brustolon went to Rome, probably in 1679. In 1685 he signed a contract for the execution of the altar of the Souls in S Floriano at Pieve di Zoldo, which suggests that he was already settled in Belluno even while maintaining contacts with Venice. In 1695 he presented a model of a door (unexecuted) for the chapel of the Tesoro at the Santo in Padua, a chapel that had been designed by ...

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A. I. Komech

[Yanka; Yakushka] (Grigor’yevich)

(b Nikol’skoye-Sverchkovo village, nr Moscow; fl 1690–1704).

Russian architect. He was active in Moscow, and his distinctive brick buildings, displaying a picturesque, tiered treatment of volumes with an abundance of white-stone decorative details, are highly characteristic works of the contemporary Moscow school of architecture. The decorative handling of the orders, complex, frequently broken profiles, bold, inset, carved ornamentation with foliage and fruit motifs, and the overall liveliness of the composition are all features characteristic of Naryshkin Baroque (named after the Naryshkins, the family on whose estates in and around Moscow many of its most striking examples were built), a style that makes extensive use of western European Baroque forms but that adheres to the general tectonic rules of earlier Russian architecture. Among the best-known buildings ascribed to Bukhvostov are the church of the Trinity (1698–1704) in Troitse-Lykovo, the walls, wall-towers and gate chapel of the New Jerusalem Monastery (1690–97; destr. World War II; now restored) and the church of the Saviour (...

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Cathie C. Kelly

(b Novazzano, nr Como, c. 1651; d Rome, ?1734).

Italian architect. Following his arrival in Rome at an unknown date, he became a pupil of Carlo Fontana. His first known work was the renovation in 1695 of the theatre (destr.) in the Palazzo Capranica. In 1698 he was elected a member of the Accademia di S Luca, where he served both as an instructor of architecture and as a judge for student competitions held between 1704 and 1708. In 1702 he went to Benevento to assist in the rebuilding of the city, which had been damaged by an earthquake; in 1705 he redesigned the piazza in front of S Sofia and placed a monumental portal on an axis with the entrance of the church (destr. 1809). He restored the medieval cathedrals of Salerno (1703–4) and Aversa (1703–15); he also remodelled the interior of Albano Cathedral (c. 1720) following the model of SS Apostoli in Rome, incorporating the existing columns of the nave into large square piers articulated with pilasters. The new façade of the cathedral was articulated with a giant order derived from Gianlorenzo Bernini’s sanctuary at Galloro and Fontana’s S Maria dell’Umilità, Rome. Among Buratti’s few independent works are the new seminary in Aversa (...

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Dieter Graf

(b Palermo, 1646; d Palermo, 1707).

Italian painter and draughtsman. He was trained in Rome, where he was first a pupil of the painter and engraver Pietro del Pò (1610–92), who also came from Palermo. At an unknown date he moved to the studio of Carlo Maratti and, with Giuseppe Passeri, became a favourite pupil. He was clearly linked to Maratti’s workshop for a long period and perfectly assimilated his teacher’s idiom, though without attaining his elegance and precision. In the 1680s Calandrucci executed various decorative frescoes in Roman palazzi: the Four Seasons in the Palazzo Lante; mythological frescoes in the gallery of the Palazzo Muti–Papazzurri; the decoration (untraced) of the gallery of the Palazzo Strozzi–Besso; and a ceiling fresco, the Sacrifice of Ceres, in the Villa Falconieri at Frascati. He also painted idyllic pastoral scenes, among them two pictures at Burghley House, Stamford, England. His secular decorations are more successful than the sometimes clumsy and banal altarpieces and ceiling frescoes that he executed in Roman churches. These include the high altar, the ...

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Věra Naňková

[Canevalle]

Italian family of architects, active in Bohemia. Marcantonio Canevale (b Lanzo d’Intelvi, northern Italy, 28 Sept 1652; d Prague, bur 15 Dec 1711) and his brother Giovanni Canevale (d Orlík, Bohemia, 11 Nov 1706) were both enrolled in the Old Town Guild in Prague on 20 May 1674. Marcantonio acquired citizenship in the New Town there on 16 October 1680 and subsequently worked for aristocratic families in Bohemia (e.g. the Ditrichštejn, Wallenstein and Pachta). In 1694–6 he built the church of the Holy Cross at Reichenberg (now Liberec) at the expense of the count of the Holy Roman Empire Franz Ferdinand von Gallas, but it was later remodelled (1753–6) by Johann Josef Kuntze (1724–1800). His finest work was created for the Ursuline Order in Prague: the church of St Ursula (1699–1704) in Prague New Town, with its three-bay nave, shows a striving towards a rhythmical and centralized treatment of the internal volumes and has an advanced form of vaulting—two wide domical vaults with a central, barrel-vaulted bay. This church is one of the best works in Bohemia from the period around ...