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Belgian, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 8 September 1768, in Namur; died 10 June 1826.

Architect, sculptor, engraver, metal worker.

Barbier studied first in Belgium before completing his studies in Antwerp at the studio of J. Verbekt. He was appointed sculptor of the king's buildings and lived for a time at the Louvre. His works include medallions of ...


French, 17th – 18th century, male.

Born c. 1645; died 11 January 1729, in Paris.

Engraver, designer of ornamental architectural features.

Brother of Bérain the Elder. He made a number of drawings for gold- and silversmiths, and for arms and monograms. He is listed as engraver to the King in ...


Flemish School, 18th century, male.

Born 22 September 1704, in Mons (Hainaut); died, in Italy.


Bettignies was the third son of Claude-Joseph de Bettignies(1675-1740), an architect, sculptor and goldsmith in Mons.


Richard Riddell

(b Birmingham, Sept 14, 1728; d Birmingham, Aug 17, 1809).

English manufacturer and engineer. At the age of 17 he entered his father’s silver stamping and piercing business at Snow Hill, Birmingham, which he inherited in 1759. His marriage in 1756 brought a considerable dowry, providing capital for the establishment in 1762 of his factory in Soho, Birmingham, in partnership with John Fothergill (d 1782). Boulton progressed from the production of ‘toys’ in tortoiseshell, stone, glass, enamel and cut steel to that of tableware in Sheffield plate, on which he obtained a monopoly, and later ormolu (e.g. two pairs of candelabra, c. 1770; Brit. Royal Col.; London, V&A) and silver, and enjoyed a reputation for fine craftsmanship. By 1770 his firm, known as Boulton & Fothergill, had nearly 800 employees and had mercantile contacts in virtually every town in Europe. His social, political and trade connections facilitated the establishment of assay offices in Birmingham and Sheffield in 1773...


Gordon Campbell


French, 18th century, male.

Born 1726, in Avignon; died 30 March 1793, in Aix-en-Provence.

Sculptor. Historical subjects, figures, architectural views, animals. Medallions, medals, monuments, statues, low reliefs.

Jean Pancrace Chastel taught sculpture at the art college in Aix-en-Provence from 1774 to around 1788.

Aix-en-Provence: Mausoleum at Reillane...


Gordon Campbell


Hans Ottomeyer

The name derives from the first French Empire under Napoleon I (see Bonaparte family, §1). The dates defining the period of the Empire historically (1804–14) and the duration of the style itself are at variance: the early phase, referred to by contemporaries as ‘le goût antique’, was a late form of Neo-classicism and became more developed as the chaos resulting from the French Revolution subsided c. 1797. The Directoire style and the Consulate style—terms similarly derived from political periods in France—were both part of the development of the Empire style.

The term was originally applied to architecture, but because Napoleon rejected the building of new castles and palaces as wasteful, the style was especially used in interior design and decoration, later being extended to other decorative arts and fashion. There was strong conscious allusion to the civilization of imperial Rome through the building forms and motifs used by the first Roman emperors, who pursued goals of internal peace and a new order together with an expansionist military policy, as did Napoleon. Personal taste and comfort became of secondary importance to the demonstration of wealth and power. The Empire style spread throughout Europe and acquired fresh impetus with the Napoleonic conquests....


Damie Stillman

Architectural and decorative arts style that flourished in the USA from shortly after the acknowledgement of independence in the Treaty of Paris (1783) until c. 1820. The term is derived from the period surrounding the creation of the federal constitution in 1787 and was in use in a political sense by that year. Essentially it was a form of Neo-classicism, strongly influenced by manifestations of that style in England and, to a lesser extent, in France; but at times certain more conservative qualities inherited from the previous Colonial period are also present. The inspiration of European, and especially English, Neo-classical architecture was to be expected in a society grounded in that of 18th-century England; but an added impetus was the association often cited at the time between the fledgling American republic and the ancient Roman one.

Although a few indications of European Neo-classical influence are found in the American colonies before the Revolution began in ...


Italian, 17th – 18th century, male.

Born 1671, in Settignano; died 12 December 1736, in Florence.

Sculptor, medallist, architect.

The church of the Annunziata in Florence houses some of Giovacchino Fortini's statues. Fortini was responsible for completing work on the façade of the church of S Firenze started by A. Maria Ferri. He also completed a tomb for the physician ...


Alison Luchs

(b Settignano, nr Florence, 1670; d Florence, 1736).

Italian sculptor, medallist, architect and festival designer. He was a leading figure in the generation of sculptors trained in Florence after the dissolution of the Accademia Fiorentina in Rome (1686). Taught by Carlo Marcellini and Giuseppe Piamontini, he worked under Giovanni Battista Foggini on sculpture for the Feroni Chapel in SS Annunziata, Florence (1691–3), and the nave of SS Michele e Gaetano (1694–6). His principal sculptures are marble works for the high altar of SS Annunziata (1704–6) and portraits. His statues of St Filippo Benizzi and St Giuliana Falconieri for the Annunziata altar, with their animated balance and restrained intensity, are among the best of their date in Florence. Several portrait busts and reliefs, with an unsparingly detailed realism tempered by coolly imperious expression, have been attributed to him. The basis for these attributions is the signed marble effigy of Baron Philipp Bertram Degenhard Joseph von Hochkirchen...



French, 18th century, male.


Draughtsman, designer of ornamental architectural features.

Fossier is remembered for a series of Trophies engraved by Berthault, two plates of Goldsmith's Work engraved by Bénard, and two plates for Happy Misfortunes by Ingouf. Patas engraved several plates of his drawings for the ...


Bruce Tattersall

Term used to describe the diverse styles of architecture, interior decoration and decorative arts produced in Britain and Ireland during the reigns of George I (1714–27), George II (1727–60) and George III (1760–1820). What might more accurately be named the Georgian period is, on occasion, further subdivided into Early (1714–1730s), Mid (1740s–1750s) and Late (1760s–1790s) periods. The term Regency style is applied to works of the period c. 1790 to 1830 and refers generally to the period when George, Prince of Wales (later George IV), was Regent (1811–20).

In architecture and interior design, the dominant aesthetic in Britain during the Georgian period was derived from classicism, but it took many different forms. The English Baroque that was current at the beginning of the 18th century was replaced at first by what became known as Palladianism, introduced by c. 1715 and championed by ...


Swedish, 18th century, male.

Died 1763, in Danzig (now Gdansk, Poland).

Architect, medallist, engraver.

Per Geringius was the son of Erik Geringius and painted several portraits.


18th century, male.

Born 1673; died 1748, in Lisbon.

Architect, goldsmith, engraver (etching), designer of ornamental architectural features.

The father of François-Thomas Germain, to whom he passed on his position as goldsmith to the king.

Paris (ENSBA)

Bouchot, Henri (preface): Cent modèles inédits de l'orfèvrerie française des XVIIe & XVIIIe siècles exécutés par les orfèvres-sculpteurs royaux Nicolas de Launay, J.-Jacques Roëttiers, Thomas Germain, François-Thomas Germain...


French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1732 or 1745, in Bar-sur-Aube; died 1813 or 1814, in Paris.

Draughtsman, metal worker (bronze), designer of ornamental architectural features.

Pierre Joseph Désiré Gouthière was particularly famous as a designer of ornamental architectural features. He collaborated with Riesener and Clodion but also realised many of his own works, combining a keen sensibility with supreme virtuosity. His most famous work is the ...


José Fernandes Pereira

[Ludwig, Johann Friedrich]

(b Hohenhart, Swabia, 1670; d Lisbon 1752).

German goldsmith and architect, active in Portugal. The information on Ludovice is sometimes contradictory, but there is no doubt that his work contributed decisively to the creation of the courtly Joanine style, a style named in honour of the King, John V, who was a great patron of architecture and who had colossal wealth from the Portuguese colonies at his disposal. In Ludovice he had the services of an architect of distinction, one who to a large degree determined the character of southern Portuguese architecture into the third quarter of the 18th century.

By the age of 19 Ludovice was in Augsburg where he acquired the rudiments of architecture. He served in the Imperial Army against the French. In 1697 he left for Rome, where he worked for the Jesuits and frequented the studios of other architects, including perhaps that of Carlo Fontana. In Rome he was employed on Andrea Pozzo’s gilt-bronze and marble altarpiece of ...


Alison Luchs

(b Florence, c. 1644; d Florence, June 22, 1713).

Italian sculptor, stuccoist and architect. After training in Florence as a goldsmith, he studied with the painter Felice Ficherelli. In 1671 he went to Rome, having been chosen for the Tuscan Accademia Granducale. He studied sculpture under Ercole Ferrata and Ciro Ferri, showing a predilection for modelling rather than the marble carving expected by his patron, Cosimo III de’ Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany. In 1672 he won first prize at the Accademia di S Luca for a terracotta relief of Decaulion and Pirra. He modelled the angels (1673–4) for the ciborium at the Chiesa Nuova (S Maria in Vallicella), which was designed by Ferri and cast by Stefano Benamati, and a terracotta relief of the Fall of the Giants (1674), pendant to a Niobid relief by Giovanni Battista Foggini (both Florence, Mus. Opificio Pietre Dure). When recalled to Florence in 1676, he was working on a more than life-size marble bust of ...


Elaine Evans Dee

(b Turin, 1695; d Paris, July 31, 1750).

French designer, architect and goldsmith. He was apprenticed to his father Etienne Meissonnier, a sculptor and silversmith of some importance, before making his way to Paris, arriving in 1714. He worked there as a die-cutter and medallist, progressing through the ranks of the metalworkers’ guild. He was variously described as a chaser, a designer and, in 1723, as a maker of watchcases; he worked for ten years at the royal furnishings factory of Gobelins, Paris. In September 1724 Louis XV appointed him by brevet a master of the Corporation des Marchands-Orfèvres Joailliers. It would appear, however, that his main occupation was as a chaser. His mark, a crowned fleur-de-lis, j o m and two grains de remède, has been found on only one piece, a gold and lapis lazuli snuff-box (1728; Geneva, J. Ortiz Patino priv. col., see Snowman, pl. 146). In spite of this scarcity of signed pieces, it is reasonable to assume that he closely supervised the work that he contracted to other goldsmiths. In ...


French, 18th century, male.

Born 1675, in Turin, Italy; died 1750, in Paris.

Painter, sculptor, architect, decorative designer, engraver, goldsmith.

Meissonnier went to Paris in 1714, and was best known as a goldsmith and decorative painter. He was a brilliant ornamentalist and was made goldsmith to the king. He produced many drawings for engravings, and his works reveal the spirit and elegance of the 18th century. His style was rococo in the extreme, and was appropriate to his position as organiser of royal festivals and funerals. His design of the façade of St-Sulpice, Paris, was not used....