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Article

Bazaar  

Mohammad Gharipour

Bazaar, which is rooted in Middle Persian wāzār and Armenian vačaṟ, has acquired three different meanings: the market as a whole, a market day, and the marketplace. The bazaar as a place is an assemblage of workshops and stores where various goods and services are offered.

Primitive forms of shops and trade centres existed in early civilizations in the Near East, such as Sialk, Tepe in Kashan, Çatal Hüyük, Jerico, and Susa. After the 4th millennium BC, the population grew and villages gradually joined together to shape new cities, resulting in trade even with the remote areas as well as the acceleration of the population in towns. The advancement of trade and accumulation of wealth necessitated the creation of trade centres. Trade, and consequently marketplaces, worked as the main driving force in connecting separate civilizations, while fostering a division of labour, the diffusion of technological innovations, methods of intercultural communication, political and economic management, and techniques of farming and industrial production....

Article

Besakih  

D. J. Stuart-Fox

Balinese Hindu temple (pura) complex. It is situated on the south-western flank of the volcano Gunung Agung, Bali’s highest mountain, in the north-east of the island. Associated probably since prehistoric times with the Lord of the Mountain, now identified with the Hindu god Shiva, it has been a dynastic temple of several royal families since at least the 15th century. The complex consists of 22 temples, spread along three parallel ridges over a distance of more than a kilometre. The complex was not planned as an entity but seems to have been constructed piecemeal, and the overall structure that links the temples is more ritual and symbolic than physical. The annual cycle of more than 70 rituals culminates in the enormous centennial Ekadasa Rudra ceremony.

The symbolic and ritual centre of the complex is Pura Penataran Agung, the largest temple, which over the centuries has undergone numerous changes. Its 57 separate structures are arranged on six terraces. Originating probably in a simple prehistoric sanctuary, it has a terraced form suggesting a series of successive enlargements. The earliest structures were probably simple shrines and stone seats, represented now in developed form by the two uppermost shrines dedicated to the Lord of the Mountain. On current evidence, the pagoda-like shrines (...

Article

Patrick Conner

(b London, Jan 7, 1774; d Macao, May 30, 1852).

English painter. Although long rumoured to be Irish, Chinnery was brought up in London, where he showed a precocious talent as a portrait painter in the traditions of Romney and Cosway. His grandfather, the calligrapher William Chinnery sr, was the author of Writing and Drawing Made Easy, Amusing and Instructive (London, 1750); his father, William jr, was also a writing master, and exhibited portraits at the Free Society of Artists. George entered the Royal Academy Schools in 1792, and by 1795 had exhibited 20 portraits at the Academy.

In 1796 Chinnery moved to Dublin. There he married his landlord’s daughter, Marianne Vigne, who gave birth to his two legitimate children. He was active in the Royal Dublin Society and in 1798 was Secretary and Treasurer of its Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture. He experimented in several styles and media, to considerable critical acclaim; in July 1801 he received a silver palette ‘in Testimony of his Exertions in promoting the Fine Arts in Ireland’ … from ‘the Artists of Dublin’....

Article

Hemis  

W. A. P. Marr

Buddhist monastery c. 45 km south-east of Leh in Ladakh, India. Founded by King Senge Namgyel in the 17th century, Hemis became the leading monastery in the region of the Tibetan Drukpa sect. Its buildings comprise chortens (stupas), mani walls, monastic dwellings and a large rectangular courtyard used for the annual monastic dance ceremony. This court is surrounded by a balcony with a throne used by the head lama on such occasions; small paintings of saintly figures appear on the rear wall of the balcony. Within the court are four tall poles decked with prayer flags and yak tails. On the right-hand side are two large temples, the Dukhang and the Chökhang; each is two storeys high and preceded by a wooden verandah containing Tibetan-style paintings of protector deities.

In the Dukhang are numerous modern paintings of Buddha figures and Tantric deities executed in the traditional Tibetan style; enormous red-painted pillars support a cupola that illuminates the interior of the hall. The Chökhang contains a fine image of the historical Buddha, Shakyamuni, a large, early 18th-century chorten and many other chortens ornamented with silver, gilt and hardstones. Images and paintings of Buddhas, great lamas and Tantric teachers abound. The Lhakhang Nyingpa Temple, at the rear of the monastery, contains the finest wall paintings at Hemis. The paintings of great abbots and Tantric masters are in an Indian style but show Chinese influence; adjoining paintings illustrating scenes from the Buddha’s life and furiously energetic Tantric deities also have a strong Chinese character. One of the most beautiful paintings depicts the 18th-century monk Shambunath delicately painted in a Kashmiri–Central Asian style....

Article

Nadia Tscherny

(b London, Oct 28, 1744; d Brixham, Devon, March 6, 1797).

English painter. He first attended classes at William Shipley’s Academy in the Strand, London, and from 1758 to 1765 was apprenticed to Richard Wilson (about whom he published a short biographical essay in 1790). Hodges followed Wilson’s classical landscape style periodically throughout his career, but, particularly during his travels, he also occasionally abandoned it in favour of freer handling, bolder juxtapositions of colour and a more empirical response to the natural world.

In 1765 Hodges joined the Incorporated Society of Artists and became a regular exhibitor. The Pantheon, Oxford Street, London (Leeds, C.A.G.), an important early example of his interest in architecture and effects of natural light, was exhibited in 1772, as were some views of Switzerland and Germany made from a trip across the Alps the previous year. In 1772 he travelled as the official artist on Capt. James Cook’s second voyage to the South Pacific. As the ...

Article

Kalna  

Walter Smith

Town and temple site in West Bengal, India, about 80 km north of Calcutta. Located on the banks of the Bhagirathi River, it was once an important port and commercial centre, but by the late 19th century its importance had declined owing to the silting up of the river and the opening of the East Indian Railway. It is now best known for several temples built during the 18th and 19th centuries by wealthy landowners, merchants and officers of local governors. Many are dated by inscription. Built of brick, they are decorated with dense arrangements of terracotta reliefs depicting scenes from the Rāmāya ṇa, the Krishna legend and scenes of everyday life, including figures in European dress. A variety of temple types are seen; the most common have squat, curvilinear superstructures, sometimes double-storey, or upper levels consisting of several towers (see Indian subcontinent §III 7., (ii), (d)). The Lalji Temple (...

Article

Hugh Belsey

(b London, Jan 31, 1734; d Aleppo, Turkey [now in Syria], ?July 1786).

English painter, active in India. Following a varied training at Shipley’s, St Martin’s Lane, and the Duke of Richmond’s Academies, he painted portraits, reminiscent of Reynolds’s, in Oxford and the Midlands. His most ambitious portrait, stylistically similar to the work of Francis Cotes, is Lady Frances Harpur and her Son Henry (c. 1766–7; Calke Abbey, Derbys, NT). Kettle travelled to India in 1768, probably at the suggestion of Admiral Sir Samuel Cornish, who sat for him with Thomas Parry and Rear-Admiral Sir Richard Kempenfeldt in the same year (priv. col., see Milner, pl. xxi).

Kettle was one of the earliest British artists to search for a career in India. He established particularly good relations with the indigenous nobility; in Madras (1769–71) he painted the Nawab of Arcot, Muhammad ‘Ali Khan, and also native genre subjects. In 1772 he travelled to the court of the Nawab of Avadh (Oudh), Shuja‘ al-Daula, at Faizabad and painted a series of canvases, most notably the ...

Article

Manaku  

B. N. Goswamy

(b Guler, c. 1700; d c. 1760).

Indian painter, elder son of the painter Pandit Seu and brother of Nainsukh. Manaku figures in the controversial colophon of a famous Gīta Govinda series of 1730. Although no place name is given in the colophon, it is more than likely that Manaku continued to work near his father in the small but lively principality of Guler. In 1736 he appears to have gone on a pilgrimage to Hardwar, where he made an entry in the priest’s register in his own hand, using the Takri hill-script. Two portraits of Manaku have survived (Chandigarh, Govt Mus. & A.G.; New Delhi, N. Mus.). The earlier shows him as a mature man of about 40, wirily built, with an erect stance and a thin, remarkably sensitive face. The appearance is noble and notably self-assured. On his forehead Manaku wears the prominent caste-mark of a devout person, a double crescent line with a dot below it. The second portrait shows Manaku decidedly heavier and older, aged somewhere between 55 and 60. In this portrait he again appears simply but elegantly dressed; a prominent jewelled bracelet on his right wrist is perhaps a token of royal favour brought in carefully by the painter. Nothing more is known of Manaku’s movements, and there are no dated works bearing his name after ...

Article

Jonathan M. Bloom and R. Nath

revised by Sheila S. Blair

[Moghul; Mogul]

Dynasty of Central Asian origin that ruled portions of the Indian subcontinent from 1526 to 1857.

R. Nath and Jonathan M. Bloom, revised by Sheila S. Blair

The dynasty’s name Mughal derives from the word Mongol, as the founder (1) Babur (‘tiger’) was a Chaghatay prince in Central Asia who was descended on his father’s side from the Mongol warlord Timur (see Timurid family, §II, (1)) and on his mother’s from Genghis Khan. After losing his Central Asian kingdom of Ferghana, Babur conquered Kabul in 1504 and then defeated the Lodi sultan at Panipat in 1526 and the Rajput cliefs at Kanwa near Agra the following year. With these victories he gained a foothold in northern India and established a capital at Delhi (see Delhi, §I, 6; see fig.). Babur was succeeded by his son (2) Humayun (‘auspicious’), who was dislodged within a decade by nobles of the old Lodi regime, particularly Farid Khan Sur (...

Article

B. N. Goswamy

(b Guler, c. 1710; d Basohli, 1778).

Indian painter. He was the younger son of Pandit Seu. He remains, justly perhaps, the Pahari painter about whom most is known. Growing up in an atmosphere of experimentation and change, Nainsukh seems to have matured early and taken enthusiastically to the fluent naturalism of Mughal painting that came to the hill region at this time. Moving much further in this direction than did his father or elder brother, Manaku, he brought the family painting style to a point where it established norms, affecting painting throughout the hills. Leaving his home in Guler c. 1740, Nainsukh entered the service of Prince Balwant Singh of Jasrota, a discriminating patron whom he served until his death in 1763. In 1763 Nainsukh went on a pilgrimage to Hardwar, where Balwant Singh’s ashes were taken for immersion, and made an uncommonly long and informative entry in the priest’s register, adding a tiny but brilliant impromptu drawing on the same page. Around ...

Article

Purkhu  

B. N. Goswamy

(fl c. 1790–1820).

Indian painter. Often associated with the court of Kangra and its most famous ruler, Maharaja Sansar Chand (reg 1775–1823), he seems to have shifted his family’s residence from Kangra to the tiny village of Samloti when the Maharaja was forced to surrender the town and fort of Kangra to the Sikhs in 1809. Purkhu’s father, Dhummun, also a professional painter, had worked for Sansar Chand’s father and grandfather. Records of the period describe the family as belonging to the professional painter caste (chitrera) of Guleria, suggesting that at some earlier time they had come from Guler. Purkhu’s work includes portraits, court scenes and processionals, all connected with Sansar Chand and his son Aniruddha Chand. Purkhu’s output seems to have been prodigious: extensive series of paintings, including a Śiva purāṇa series (Chandigarh, Govt Mus. & A.G.), a Harivamsa series (dispersed), a Parijat-Harana series (New Delhi, N. Mus.) and a ...

Article

B. N. Goswamy

(b Guler, c. 1680; d Guler, c. 1740).

Indian painter. He was the father of the painters Manaku and Nainsukh. He was probably attached to the court of Raja Dilip Singh (reg c. 1695–1741) of Guler, although no work signed by him, or securely dated, is known. However, inscriptional evidence marks him out as the head of one of the most important families of painters in the Pahari region. Firmly rooted in the tradition of painting as practised in his family, Pandit Seu seems to have travelled outside the hills or at least to have come into active, fruitful contact with the painters from the plains working in the naturalistic, late Mughal manner. To this work he responded slowly and carefully from the middle of his career. The honorific term Pandit, often attached to his name and occurring even on a portrait sketch of his that has survived, suggests that the family to which he belonged came from Brahmin stock but, having professionally taken to painting, eventually fell from caste and merged in the carpenter–painter caste groups generally called ...

Article

Robert L. Hardgrave jr

(b Antwerp, July 6, 1760; d Antwerp, Oct 10, 1824).

Flemish printmaker and painter. He pursued his early career in Europe as a marine painter, but political unrest and his own insecure position led him to seek his fortune in India. Residing in Calcutta from 1791 to 1804, Solvyns undertook the work for which he is best known, A Collection of Two Hundred and Fifty Coloured Etchings Descriptive of the Manners, Customs and Dresses of the Hindoos. After a limited printing in 1796, the collection was published by Solvyns in Calcutta in 1799 in 12 parts. The first of these, comprising 66 prints, depicts ‘the Hindoo Castes with their respective professions’, while the following sections portray servants, religious mendicants, forms of transportation, modes of smoking, musical instruments, and festivals. Solvyns approached his task as an ethnographer but, lacking the appeal of the picturesque which was then in vogue, the project proved a financial failure. On his return to Europe, Solvyns prepared new etchings from his drawings and produced a folio edition of 288 plates, ...

Article

M. A. Claringbull

[anc. Kāsī: ‘City of Light’; Kashi; Vārāṇasī; Banāras; Benares]

Sacred city and pilgrimage centre on the banks of the Ganga River between the Barna, or Varuna, and Asi rivers in Uttar Pradesh, India. It is the most holy of the seven sacred cities of Hinduism (the others being Ayodhya, Mathura, Hardwar, Kanchipuram, Ujjain and Dwarka) and has been the focus of Brahmanical learning and religious pilgrimage from ancient times.

The existence of the city from earliest times is attested by myriad references in the sacred texts. The kingdom of Kashi is mentioned in the Vedas, and the kings of Kashi are referred to in the Mahābhārata, although not until the Puranas is Varanasi mentioned as the capital city of Kashi. Around the time of the Buddha (600 bc) 16 great city states flourished in north India, the three most prominent being Maghada, Koshala and Varanasi. Owing to its strategic position at the confluence of the Ganga and Varuna rivers, Varanasi was a significant trading and commercial centre. In many tales of the previous lives of Buddha (Skt ...

Article

Geoffrey Ashton and Lin Barton

(Joseph ) [Johannes Josephus ; John ]

(b nr Frankfurt am Main, March 13, 1733; d Strand-on-the-Green, nr Kew, London, Nov 11, 1810).

German painter, active in England. Born Johannes Josephus Zauffaly, he was the son of Anton Franz Zauffaly (1699–1771), Court Cabinetmaker and Architect in Regensburg to Alexander Ferdinand, Prince of Thurn and Taxis. After an apprenticeship in Regensburg under the painter and engraver Martin Speer (c. 1702–65), a pupil of Francesco Solimena, Zoffany left in 1750 for Rome, where he studied under the portrait painter Agostino Masucci and came into contact with Anton Raphael Mengs. By 1757 and after a second trip to Rome, Zoffany was commissioned by Clemens August, Prince-Archbishop and Elector of Trier, to produce frescoes and paintings for his new palace at Trier and the palace of Ehrenbreitstein at Koblenz. All Zoffany’s early work at Ehrenbreitstein and Trier has been destroyed, but it may have been in the German Rococo manner of Cosmas Damian Asam and Johann Baptist Zimmermann. A number of small easel paintings such as ...