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Article

Italian, 12th century, male.

Sculptor, architect.

According to an inscription, this artist worked on the columns of the crypt of S Zeno, Verona.

Article

Italian, 12th century, male.

Active in Campione during the second half of the 12th century.

Architect, sculptor.

The founding member of a family of artists, Anselmo worked on the building of the Modena Cathedral, and was at the height of his powers about 1180. J. Burckhardt attributes to him (and to Campori and Borghi) a number of reliefs of ...

Article

Italian, 12th century, male.

Active in Piperno.

Sculptor, architect.

According to an inscription dated 1183, this artist built the portico of the cathedral of Piperno. A number of sculptures in this church are also attributed to him.

Article

Italian, 12th century, male.

Active in Tuscany.

Born to a family originally from Bidogno, near Tesserete.

Sculptor, architect.

Among the works of this artist are two low reliefs above the porch of S Casciano in Pisa that bear his name and the date 1180. These reliefs depict ...

Article

Italian, 12th century, male.

Active in Pisa.

Sculptor, architect.

Article

Italian, 12th century, male.

Active in Pisa.

Architect, sculptor.

Pisan School.

This artist worked from 1174 to 1186. A sculptor and a worker in bronze, he made the bronze decorations of the main entrance of Pisa Cathedral (1180), but unfortunately they were destroyed by a fire in ...

Article

Cosma  

Italian, 12th – 14th century, male.

Sculptors, stonemasons.

These artists, who often worked together, were sometimes artisans of limited artistic ability. Others, such as Cosma di Jacopo or Cosmas I (13th century), and Cosma di Pietro Mellini or Cosmas II (13th century), became famous as sculptors. The genealogy of these artists is much disputed. They can be found in this dictionary under their forenames plus 'di Cosma' (for example: Giovanni di Cosma). They were responsible mainly for geometrical ornamentation in polychrome marbles on the façades of numerous churches in Rome, and for paving and arcading, as well as the decoration of church interiors, thrones and tombs. They also worked at Cività Castellana and on the façade of Florence Cathedral. Some of them were architects....

Article

Francis Woodman

Term invented in the early 19th century by Thomas Rickman to denote the style of Early Gothic ecclesiastical architecture that flourished in Britain from c. 1190 to c. 1250. Rickman’s original style label, which he applied to architecture of the period 1189–1307, was popularized by Nikolaus Pevsner in The Buildings of England. The term is still in favour where equivalent labels (‘lancet’ or ‘pointed style’) have fallen out of use. The style follows the Romanesque and develops into the Decorated style and is characterized by the use of rib vaults, sharply pointed arches, lancet windows, deep mouldings, and the use of decorative contrasting marbles and foliage sculpture, especially Stiff-leaf. It was superseded after the mid-13th century by the window tracery and patterned vaults of the Decorated style). (See also Gothic §II 1..)

The Early English style combined such formal aspects of French Gothic as rib vaults with English pre-Gothic decorative and structural tendencies. It developed from several regional centres of late 12th-century Gothic, the most important of which were the choir of ...

Article

William W. Clark

[First Gothic; Fr. premier art gothique]. First Gothic

The generally accepted term for the first phase of the French Gothic style (see Gothic, §II, 1), lasting from its beginning at Saint-Denis Abbey (c. 1140; see Saint-Denis Abbey, §I, 2) until the reconstruction of Chartres Cathedral (begun after 1194; see Chartres, §I, 1). The Early Gothic style was at first largely confined to the areas in and around Paris and those under royal control, but generally the style spread without respect for political boundaries, having quickly lost its initial Parisian association with the Capetian monarchs. Areas contiguous to the royal domain, such as Normandy and Champagne, were the first to benefit from the structural and spatial changes. The first Gothic buildings in England, Spain, and Germany are described as ‘Early Gothic’, but the practice of adopting stylistic features while rejecting structural innovation indicates that in these countries the main connotations of the term should be chronological. Only with the cathedrals of ...

Article

French, 12th century, male.

Died 29 December 1163.

Sculptor. Religious subjects.

Architect and Bishop of Metz, this artist was also known as a sculptor. He decorated the high-altar choir of his cathedral and restored the churches of St-Pierre-aux-Images and Notre-Dame-la-Ronde.

Article

Italian, 12th century, male.

Active in Milan at the end of the 12th century.

Architect, sculptor.

Article

Gothic  

Peter Kidson, Michael T. Davis, Paul Crossley, Dany Sandron, Kathryn Morrison, Andreas Bräm, Pamela Z. Blum, V. Sekules, Phillip Lindley, Ulrich Henze, Joan A. Holladay, G. Kreytenberg, Guido Tigler, R. Grandi, Anna Maria D’Achille, Francesco Aceto, J. Steyaert, Pedro Dias, Jan Svanberg, Angela Franco Mata, Peta Evelyn, Peter Tångeberg, Carola Hicks, Marian Campbell, Elisabeth Taburet-Delahaye, A. M. Koldeweij, G. Reinheckel, Judit Kolba, Lennart Karlsson, Barbara Drake Boehm, Danielle Gaborit-Chopin, Virginia Chieffo Raguin, Yvette Vanden Bemden, Nigel J. Morgan, Daniel Kletke, Erhard Drachenberg and Scot McKendrick

Term used to denote, since the 15th century, the architecture and, from the 19th, all the visual arts of Europe during a period extending by convention from about 1120 to 1400 in central Italy, and until the late 15th century and even well into the 16th in northern Europe and the Iberian Peninsula. The Early Gothic style overlapped chronologically with Romanesque and flourished after the onset of Renaissance art in Italy and elsewhere. Scholarly preoccupations with the nature of the Gothic style (see §I below) have been centred almost exclusively on architecture, and the term has never been satisfactory for the figural arts, especially painting (see §IV below); but the 19th-century tradition of classification has proved so enduring that it continues to be used for figural styles.

The people who produced what has since come to be known as Gothic art needed no name to distinguish what they were doing from other styles. They were aware of differences of appearance between the churches they built and buildings of earlier periods, but if these had any significance for them, it was mainly iconographical. As the defining characteristics of Gothic are always more conspicuous in ecclesiastical than in secular art, they no doubt considered its primary function to be in the service of the Church. Otherwise they seem to have been unaware that their arts had a history. It needed the comprehensive changes of taste associated with the Renaissance to introduce the notion of Gothic into the vocabulary of art. During the 15th century educated Italians such as ...

Article

Italian, 12th century, male.

Active in Pisa.

Sculptor.

This artist carved the former throne of Pisa Cathedral. He is probably also the cathedral's architect. Attributed to him are what remains of the choir screens, six sections of which are in the Camposanto and six others at an altar in the baptistery....

Article

Francis Woodman

Former Augustinian priory church in Northumberland, England, noted for its Anglo-Saxon crypt and Early Gothic transept. Founded c. ad 675 by St Wilfrid (d 709), Hexham was an important Anglo-Saxon building, and a cathedral from 681. Richard of Hexham (12th century) described the early church as ‘larger than any other house this side of the Alps’, while William of Malmesbury (c. 1124) said that Hexham displayed the ‘glories of Rome’ and that Wilfrid had brought Roman masons to build it. The church, dedicated to St Andrew, was a basilica with square piers supporting galleries over the aisles, perhaps extending around the west, and a clerestory. Access to the upper floor was by spiral stairs. The crypt ‘of wonderfully dressed stone’ (Eddius) survives beneath the present church. Other potentially early features suggest a bema-like eastern termination. A 7th-century English basilican church with both crypt and galleries is exceptional and recalls S Agnese fuori le Mura (...

Article

William W. Clark

Stylistic term applied to what is widely considered to be the ‘classic’ period in Gothic architecture (see Gothic, §II, 1), which encompassed the series of cathedrals built in northern France between c. 1195 and c. 1230. In English the term has an added connotation of literal height. As a term in English, High Gothic gained currency only after World War II, although the concept of a classic phase of Gothic architecture is a mid-19th-century idea that developed in the scholarship of several countries, including England and Germany, as well as France. It was Viollet-le-Duc who gave the idea its most thorough-going expression in French studies. Most of the older ideas about the style of the early 13th century and the labels applied to it are conveniently summarized and analysed by Frankl (1960), although both Pevsner and Watkin added significant British scholarship.

The term High Gothic has been applied to exclude as well as to include. At its narrowest it includes the cathedrals of ...

Article

Peter Kidson, Michael T. Davis, Paul Crossley, Dany Sandron, Kathryn Morrison, Andreas Bräm, Pamela Z. Blum, V. Sekules, Phillip Lindley, Ulrich Henze, Joan A. Holladay, G. Kreytenberg, Guido Tigler, R. Grandi, Anna Maria D’Achille, Francesco Aceto, J. Steyaert, Pedro Dias, Jan Svanberg, Angela Franco Mata, Peta Evelyn, Peter Tångeberg, Carola Hicks, Marian Campbell, Elisabeth Taburet-Delahaye, A. M. Koldeweij, G. Reinheckel, Judit Kolba, Lennart Karlsson, Barbara Drake Boehm, Danielle Gaborit-Chopin, Virginia Chieffo Raguin, Yvette Vanden Bemden, Nigel J. Morgan, Daniel Kletke, Erhard Drachenberg and Scot McKendrick

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Article

Peter Kidson

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Article

Peter Kidson, Michael T. Davis, Paul Crossley, Dany Sandron, Kathryn Morrison, Andreas Bräm, Pamela Z. Blum, V. Sekules, Phillip Lindley, Ulrich Henze, Joan A. Holladay, G. Kreytenberg, Guido Tigler, R. Grandi, Anna Maria D’Achille, Francesco Aceto, J. Steyaert, Pedro Dias, Jan Svanberg, Angela Franco Mata, Peta Evelyn, Peter Tångeberg, Carola Hicks, Marian Campbell, Elisabeth Taburet-Delahaye, A. M. Koldeweij, G. Reinheckel, Judit Kolba, Lennart Karlsson, Barbara Drake Boehm, Danielle Gaborit-Chopin, Virginia Chieffo Raguin, Yvette Vanden Bemden, Nigel J. Morgan, Daniel Kletke, Erhard Drachenberg and Scot McKendrick

In 

Article

French, 12th century, male.

Sculptor, architect.

In 1120 Iterius worked on the restoration of the abbey of St-Martin, Auxerre.

Article

Peter Kidson, Michael T. Davis, Paul Crossley, Dany Sandron, Kathryn Morrison, Andreas Bräm, Pamela Z. Blum, V. Sekules, Phillip Lindley, Ulrich Henze, Joan A. Holladay, G. Kreytenberg, Guido Tigler, R. Grandi, Anna Maria D’Achille, Francesco Aceto, J. Steyaert, Pedro Dias, Jan Svanberg, Angela Franco Mata, Peta Evelyn, Peter Tångeberg, Carola Hicks, Marian Campbell, Elisabeth Taburet-Delahaye, A. M. Koldeweij, G. Reinheckel, Judit Kolba, Lennart Karlsson, Barbara Drake Boehm, Danielle Gaborit-Chopin, Virginia Chieffo Raguin, Yvette Vanden Bemden, Nigel J. Morgan, Daniel Kletke, Erhard Drachenberg and Scot McKendrick

In