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Article

German, 16th century, male.

Painter.

Achert's name is found on a painting dating from the Renaissance period, which decorates one of the altars in the church of Rottweil.

Article

Italian, 15th century, male.

Active in Venice,c. 1443–1490.

Painter, manuscript illuminator.

Leonardo Bellini was the nephew of Jacopo Bellini and cousin of his sons Giovanni and Gentile, all three of whom were painters. A contract dated 1443 documents Leonardo as an apprentice to Jacopo, with whom he lived. Although a few panel paintings have been attributed to him, Leonardo was primarily active as an illuminator. He seems to have specialised in adding miniatures to ...

Article

(b Perugia, c. 1420; d Perugia, July 8, 1496).

Italian painter. He was almost certainly trained in Perugia between 1430 and 1440, where a Late Gothic style was still dominant. Subsequently he was influenced by Fra Angelico, whose polyptych (Perugia, G.N. Umbria) for S Domenico, Perugia, was commissioned in 1437, and more importantly by Domenico Veneziano, who worked in that city c. 1438. The influence of Domenico Veneziano and of Gentile da Fabriano can be seen in Bonfigli’s earliest surviving work, a polyptych (now dismembered), which had a central panel of the Virgin and Child (El Paso, TX, Mus. A.), shown against a densely wooded background, and St Sebastian and a Bishop Saint (Monserrat, Mus.) on one wing. Another wing (untraced) shows St Bernardino of Siena and St Anthony Abbot. Bonfigli is first documented on 7 March 1445, when he undertook to paint a Virgin and Child with Two Angels (untraced) for a chapel near S Pietro, Perugia. A votive fresco of ...

Article

Hans Georg Gmelin

[Master of the Halepagen Altar]

(b Lübeck, c. 1460; d Hamburg, 1528).

German Late Gothic painter. His Lübeck origins are demonstrated stylistically in his contribution to the altar of the Lübeck Corpus Christi Brotherhood (1496; Lübeck, St Annen-Mus.). In 1499 he probably married a woman previously married, in succession, to Hans Bornemann, Hinrik Funhof, and Absalon Stumme (fl c. 1486–98): this enabled him to become established in Hamburg as a workshop proprietor. Both Stumme and his wife’s son Henrik Bornemann died that year. Dedeke’s first task was therefore to complete their work on the wings of the St Luke altar for the Jakobikirche in Hamburg. He was accepted into the painters’ guild in 1500: in 1502 he became master of the Brotherhood of St Thomas. After his second surviving altarpiece in Hamburg, for the Company of Fishers (1508; Jakobikirche), he probably remained the leading artist of Hamburg until his death.

Dedeke’s style remained basically unchanged from the Corpus Christi altar. Of this now incomplete double-winged altarpiece, with a carved shrine by ...

Article

Giovanna Damiani

(Ghezzi)

(b Asciano, Siena, c. 1400; d Siena, before 1445).

Italian painter. His few surviving works show that he played a pivotal role in the movement from Gothic painting to the Renaissance style in Siena during the 15th century. He is first documented in 1420, as an apprentice on an unidentified project for Siena Cathedral, and his name appears near the end of the Ruolo dei pittori, the list of the painters’ guild compiled from 1428.

Inferences about Domenico’s artistic education are suggested by the first work securely assignable to him, a small panel of the Virgin and Child Enthroned with SS Peter and Paul (Washington, DC, N.G.A.). This shows an early awareness of Florentine art of the 1420s and complete familiarity with the new artistic language of the Renaissance. The architectural setting, in classical style, is apparently inspired by the new conception of the altarpiece as a sacra conversazione, favoured by Fra Angelico at the beginning of the 1420s. The Virgin, housed in a shell niche, is crowned with a garland held by putti reminiscent of Donatello. She sits firmly and solemnly on a marble throne, holding the muscular child. The composition is a free variation on a model by Masaccio, whose early work, like Domenico’s, shares many features with the sculpture of Luca della Robbia. Another Florentine element, apparently derived from Paolo Uccello, is the halo with star points, also used by Domenico in later works. The strongly Florentine orientation of this early work refutes the theory that he was trained by ...

Article

Italian, 15th century, male.

Born 21 December 1401, in San Giovanni Val d’Arno, near Florence; died 1428, in Rome.

Painter, fresco artist. Religious subjects, portraits. Murals.

Florentine School.

Masaccio is considered the founding artist of Renaissance painting, his works showing the application of Filippo Brunelleschi’s system of linear perspective, a fascination with both anatomical structure and the art of classical antiquity, and a new dramatic and emotional intensity....

Article

German, 16th century, male.

Died 1533.

Sculptor (wood), engraver, draughtsman.

The most important work by this anonymous artist is the great altar of Brisach Cathedral (1526), one of the most interesting examples of Baroque art in southern Germany. Another, later work is the less well preserved altar in the church at Niederrothweil near Brisach. The sculptor is not afraid to tackle the most complex and detailed of forms, his figures, almost grotesque in their exaggeration, seeming to whirl and fly....

Article

French, 16th century, male.

Born between 1515 and 1520, in Gray; died 1601, in Dijon.

Sculptor (wood), draughtsman, engraver, architect. Architectural views.

The exhibition Hugues Sambin: An Artist of the French Renaissance ( Hugues Sambin: Un Artiste de la Renaissance Française), held in the National Museum of the Renaissance in Écouen in ...

Article

Marco Torriti

[Stefano di Giovanni di Consolo]

(b Siena or Cortona, c. 1400; d Siena, April 1, 1450).

Italian painter and illuminator. He was the most original painter in Siena in the 15th century. Working within the Sienese tradition, he introduced elements derived from the decorative Gothic style and the realism of such contemporary Florentine innovators as Masaccio. Most of his surviving works are panel pictures, notably those from the altarpiece painted for S Francesco, Borgo San Sepolcro.

The name Sassetta appears to have been associated with him, mistakenly, only since the 18th century (Pecci, 1752), but it is generally used. He was the son of Giovanni di Consolo of Cortona (Bacci, 1936) and is firmly documented first in 1426 in Siena but was probably active there earlier. His influences included Taddeo di Bartolo, Martino di Bartolommeo (fl 1389; d c. 1435), Benedetto di Bindo, Gregorio di Cecco and other artists who were links between the great Sienese painters of the early 14th century (Simone Martini, Ambrogio Lorenzetti and Pietro Lorenzetti) and the art of the 15th-century Renaissance....