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Bertolt  

German, 11th century, male.

Active in Salzburg.

Miniaturist.

Although this artist worked in Salzburg, his work has the Byzantine traits of the Regensburg School.

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Robin Cormack

(b nr St Pölten, 1902; d Vienna, 1990).

Austrian art historian. A highly influential scholar of Byzantine art, he was also concerned with western medieval painting, particularly Romanesque, and with the restoration of Austrian monuments. He studied art history under Josef Strzygowski at the University of Vienna (1921–8). From 1930 to 1936 he worked for the Austrian monuments service as keeper of monuments in Carinthia. In 1939 he emigrated to England where he worked as librarian of the Warburg Institute in London and taught at the Courtauld Institute. In 1946 he returned to Austria as president of the reconstituted monuments service, and from 1963 to 1973 held the chair of art history in the University of Vienna, where he taught medieval and Byzantine art.

Although he often demonstrated an unerring ability to set a medieval monument in the context of its artistic tradition, he appears sometimes to have been inattentive to detail and to historical textual issues. Yet, even in his earliest work (...

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Style of architecture used chiefly in western Europe and North America from the 1820s until the end of the 19th century. In Europe it was related to the Rundbogenstil and the Byzantine Revival, and in England it was an extension of the Norman Revival. It derived ultimately from Romanesque church architecture of the 11th and 12th centuries. Its principal characteristics were the semicircular arch and the barrel or groin vault. In Bavaria, for example, Leo von Klenze based the Allerheiligen-Hofkirche (1826–37; destr. 1944; rebuilt from 1986) in Munich on the Romanesque Palatine Chapel (begun 1131) in Palermo, Sicily. It was an architecture of stone and brick, sometimes laid in different colours for contrast. Ornament was generally spare, in geometric or foliate patterns and confined to arches, tympana or the ribs of vaulting. The increased use of the style from the 1860s formed part of the general move away from international classicism and the Gothic Revival and towards eclecticism in architecture. The style was, however, most commonly used first for churches and ultimately for prisons....

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