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T. I. Zeymal’

Buddhist monastery of the 7th century ad to first half of the 8th, in the valley of the Vakhsh River, 12 km east of Kurgan-Tyube, southern Tajikistan. During this early medieval period it belonged to Vakhsh (U-sha in Chinese sources), one of the 27 domains of Tokharistan. Excavations between 1960 and 1975 by the Academy of Sciences, Tajikistan, and the Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg, exposed the entire site; most of the finds are on loan to the Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg. The buildings, which covered an area of 100×50 m, were constructed of mud-bricks (c. 490×250×110 mm) and rammed earth, with walls surviving to a height of 5.5 to 6.0 m. The site comprised two square complexes linked by an enfilade of three rooms (see fig. (a)). The south-eastern complex or monastery (b) had domed cells (c) for monks, a hall or refectory (d), service quarters, store-rooms and a small sanctuary (e). An open courtyard in the centre had a fired brick path across it, linking the enfilade to the sanctuary. A corridor around the perimeter of the courtyard was divided into four right-angled sections by a deep iwan, or vestibule, in the middle of each side. One of these vestibules led into the sanctuary, the second into the meeting-hall, the third into the enfilade and the fourth to the monastery exit (j) and also on to a vaulted ramp (k) that originally gave access to the roof and the now lost second storey....

Article

6th century, male.

Active during the second half of the 6th century BC.

Born in Magnesia ad Maeandrum.

Sculptor, architect.

Ancient Greek.

Bathycles, like many other Ionians in Asia, moved westwards under the threat from the Medes as first Lydia and then the coastal towns fell. He came eventually to work in Greece. Around 530 BC, he designed the vast decorative construction known as the ...

Article

6th century, male.

Active during the second half of the 6th century BC.

Born in Chios.

Sculptor, architect.

Ancient Greek.

Boupalus' work is known from the writings of Pausanias. Mention is made of a statue of Fortune, crowned with a polos (head-dress) and holding in her hand the horn of Amalthea. It is likely that Boupalus was the originator of this type of statue, so often copied by the Romans. They, and Augustus in particular, much appreciated his work, examples of which were placed in the temple of Apollo on the Palatine. Boupalus worked with his sculptor brother Athenis in several towns in Asia Minor and at Delos....

Article

Dinas  

9th century, male.

Active in Greece 850 BC.

Painter, designer of ornamental architectural features.

Ancient Greek.

Article

3rd century BC, male.

Active in Megara.

Sculptor.

Ancient Greek.

Eupalinus worked in Athens. He should not be confused with famous architect of the 6th century.

Article

7th century, male.

Active in Lacedaemonia probably during the 7th century BC.

Sculptor, architect.

Ancient Greek.

Gitiadas made a statue of Athena for the temple dedicated to the goddess in Sparta, as well as two tripods decorated with figures of Ares and Aphrodite for the temple of Apollo at Amyclae. He worked in bronze, particularly for the cladding on reliefs in a number of temples, such as that of Athena Chalkioikos (Athena of the Bronze House) in Sparta. This technique, more metalwork than sculpture, derived from eastern art. It is not possible to describe Gitiadas' style, since nothing remains of his work....

Article

Italian, 9th century, male.

Born 776, in Verona; died 846, in Verona.

Sculptor (including wood), architect, goldsmith.

An archdeacon, he built in the city and province of Verona several churches and chapels that are now either entirely or partially destroyed.

Article

Palazzo  

Philancy N. Holder

[It.: ‘palace’]

Italian term originally applied to large or residential buildings but now used more broadly to describe any large secular or urban structure. Although the early medieval Italian palazzo contained residential space, it was primarily civic in purpose, providing the seat of government during the era of the independent city-republics, communes and later rule by individuals. The terms Palazzo Pubblico, Palazzo Comunale, Palazzo del Podestà and Palazzo dei Priori all indicate types of designated government at the time of a particular civic building’s construction. Residential palazzi, on the other hand, are identified by the names of the families who built or remodelled them, as in the Palazzo Rucellai and the Palazzo Medici (later Palazzo Medici–Riccardi; see §2 below).

The architectural characteristics of such medieval civic structures as the Palazzo del Podestà (1255; also known as Palazzo Bargello) in Florence (see Florence, §I, 2) strongly influenced the development of the private palazzo. The massive, fortress-like exteriors, solid, sparsely fenestrated walls and crenellated watch-towers that characterized the medieval palazzo were clear indications of the fierce political climate of the Middle Ages. Until the 15th century, crenellations with rectangular merlons indicated papal or Guelph loyalties, while cleft battlements declared imperial or Ghibelline sympathies. Regardless of allegiance, however, masons throughout Italy built secular structures using identical vernacular building methods, adopting the uncomplicated post-and-lintel bay system. Builders dressed local stone into rusticated blocks for the load-bearing walls. Where stone was not readily available, brick construction predominated....

Article

Rhoecus  

7th century, male.

Born in Samos.

Sculptor, architect.

Ancient Greek.

Rhoecus, with his son Theodorus, built and decorated several temples, including that dedicated to Hera in Samos and the first temple of Artemis in Ephesus. With his son and Smilis of Aegina he directed work on the Labyrinth at Lemnos. He is said to have invented bronze casting for statues....

Article

John Osborne

(Rome)

Situated in the Forum Romanum, at the foot of the Palatine Hill, S. Maria Antiqua is an early medieval church inserted into a pre-existing complex of classical buildings. It was excavated by Giacomo Boni in 1900. The original structure, dated by brick stamps to the late years of the emperor Domitian (reg 81–96 CE), comprised an atrium, a vaulted quadriporticus, and three chambers beyond. Its precise function remains uncertain, although it was presumably related to Domitian’s palace on the hill above, to which it was connected by a ramp. At some point, probably in the second half of the 6th century, the site was converted for use as a church. Columns were substituted for the four brick pilasters on the long sides of the quadriporticus, and an apse was cut into the end wall. A church with this dedication had been known from an early 8th-century reference in the ...

Article

Patsy Vanags

Site of a Roman temple incorporated into an Early Christian or early medieval church, c. 15 km north of Spoleto, Italy. The River Clitumnus, with its numerous springs, was sacred in Roman times, and there were many shrines along its course. Spolia from these may have been used in the existing structure. It has some traits in common with Roman temples, most notably its four-columned façade with a pediment above. The framing of the columns with two apparently contemporary square section columns is uncommon, but other aspects of its design mark it out as an Early Christian building (4th or 5th century ad) or an early medieval one (8th or 9th century). The interior has a narrow horseshoe arch in the apse and carved mouldings with early medieval characteristics. The building stands on a podium, but instead of a staircase at the front, a flight of steps on either side leads to a small pedimented doorway giving access to the interior. This unusual arrangement may be due to the siting of the building on a sloping bank, but its bold form, with miniaturized Hellenistic grandeur reminiscent of the Roman sanctuary (late ...

Article

Chinese, 7th century, male.

Active during the Tang dynasty.

Born c. 600, in Wannian (Shenxi); died 673.

Painter.

Yan Liben was a senior official, painter and architect who worked at the Tang capital, Chang’an. Along with his brother Yan Lide, he was one of the towering figures of Tang civilisation, that great dynasty whose influence would be felt for centuries. He was born into a family from the grand aristocracy. His mother was a Zhou princess and his father, Yan Bi, a celebrated painter and architect during the Northern Zhou and Sui dynasties who, as president of imperial works under Emperor Yangdi (605-617), had directed a number of works including the construction of the Grand Canal and the restoration of the Great Wall. He would hand on his skills and knowledge to his sons Liben and Lide. Lide, in fact, would in turn become minister of public works and build palaces, fortifications and imperial tombs, which he would adorn with paintings....