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Article

Abbon  

French, 7th century, male.

Active in Limoges from 600 to 630.

Sculptor.

This artist is thought to be the Master of St Eloysius.

Article

French, 9th century, male.

Active in Tours.

Monk, miniaturist.

Article

Adelr  

German, 6th – 7th century, male.

Active at the beginning of the Middle Ages.

Sculptor.

On the wall of the chapel of St Anne, in Worms Cathedral, there is an old stone relief of Daniel in the LionsDen by this artist.

Article

British, 8th century, male.

Active from 724 to 740.

Miniaturist.

Anglo-Irish School.

Aethelwold was Bishop of Lindisfarne and is thought to be the painter of the miniatures in the oldest British bible The Durham Book, preserved in the British Museum.

London (British Mus.): The Durham Book...

Article

Alano  

Italian, 8th century, male.

Miniaturist.

This monk worked in Italy.

Article

Italian, 9th century, male.

Miniaturist.

There is a richly decorated and illuminated Bible attributed to this artist in the archives of the cathedral in Monza.

Article

Richard Gem, Carola Hicks, David Park, Janet Backhouse, Leslie Webster and Mildred Budny

Art of the period in England between the Germanic invasions of the later 5th century ad and the Norman Conquest of 1066.

Richard Gem

The invading Angles, Saxons, Jutes, and possibly Frisians settled all over lowland England, bringing their Germanic culture (see Migration period) and establishing kingdoms—the Jutes and Saxons in the south and the Anglians in the east, Mercia (the Midlands), and what became Northumbria, north of the River Humber. The native British were pushed into Wales and the far south-west, and paganism replaced the Christianity that had survived from late Roman times. Artefacts from this period consist largely of burial goods recovered from excavated cemeteries.

New Christian missions arrived in Kent from Italy and Frankish Gaul in the late 6th century (see Canterbury, §I) and in Northumbria from Ireland and Scotland in the 7th, resulting in the gradual conversion of all the kingdoms and the adoption of the Roman liturgy after 664. The conversion to Christianity encouraged not only the construction of stone buildings and crosses, but also the production of liturgical books, vessels, and vestments, many of which survive. Although a Mediterranean-based culture was transmitted via the Merovingians (...

Article

French, 9th century, male.

Active in Tours.

Miniaturist.

Tours School.

Aregarius was a monk. His name is found with those of the other miniaturists, Amandus and Sigvaldus, in the dedicatory poem on the title page of the Comte Vivien Bible. This bible, now in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, is a famous work of Carolingian painting and belongs to the Tours School. It is dated 845-851....

Article

Italian, 8th century, male.

Painter.

Lombard School.

The Lombard king Astolfo commissioned this artist to build the church of S Pier-Somaldi in Lucca.

Article

Berno  

French, 9th century, male.

Active in Tours.

Miniaturist.

Article

German, 9th century, male.

Painter.

A monk in the abbey of Fulda.

Article

Columba  

Italian, 6th century, male.

Born c. 520; died 597.

Illuminator, calligrapher.

Lombard School.

Attributed to him is the magnificent volume known as the Gospel of St Columkille or The Durrow Book, preserved in Trinity College, Dublin.

Dublin (Trinity College Library): Gospel of St Columkille (The Durrow Book)...

Article

Dagulf  

French, 8th century, male.

Miniaturist.

This artist worked for the Emperor Charlemagne and Pope Hadrian I. The national library in Munich holds illustrated manuscripts by him.

Munich (Bayerische Staatsbibliothek): illustrated manuscripts

Article

Daniel  

Italian, 5th – 6th century, male.

Active in Ravenna.

Sculptor.

Article

One of the few surviving, early medieval, Latin technical treatises. Its attribution, localization, and dating rest largely on internal evidence variously interpreted and inconclusive. The treatise now comprises three books: it is generally agreed that Books I and II, written in verse by one hand at some time between the 7th and 12th centuries, constitute the original text; Book III, written in prose, was added piecemeal during the 12th and 13th centuries. The treatise is commonly attributed to (H)Eraclius, who is cited as the author in Books I and III but probably wrote only Books I and II. It is not known whether he was a native of Italy or a northerner promoting his knowledge of Roman techniques, and accordingly De coloribus has been located to either Italy or northern Europe.

Relatively complete versions of the text survive in two manuscripts, both accompanied by Theophilus’s treatise De diversis artibus (extracts of the text within compilations of technical material are more common): the first (ex-Trinity Coll., Cambridge, MS. R. 15 5; London, BL, Egerton MS. 840 A) is German and dated ...

Article

Lawrence Nees

Illuminated Carolingian Gospel book (Epernay, Bibliothèque municipal, cod. 1). The Ebbo Gospels is among the most famous of all early medieval manuscripts, and has figured in virtually all modern discussions of Carolingian art and of book illumination, primarily because of the wonderfully animated—some have said ‘expressionistic’—quality of the four portraits of the Evangelists, the only full-page figural decoration. Because of its style, it has generally been closely linked with an even more famous manuscript, the richly illustrated Utrecht Psalter, as the key works of the ‘Reims school’ of book illumination. The Ebbo Gospels is in some sense the key work, for it alone has some indication of date, patronage and place of production. In it is a long dedication poem, mentioning Ebbo, who was Archbishop of Reims from 816, and who died in 851as Bishop of Hildesheim. The manuscript must have been made in his lifetime, with most scholars favouring a date before his first deposition from the see, in 834, but this is uncertain, and it could be later. The other figure named in the poem is Abbot Peter of a monastery dedicated to St Peter. This might be the abbey of Hautvillers, near Reims, in whose library the book was preserved at the time of the French Revolution, but nothing is known of this figure, or his dates of office or death. The lively drawing style of the Gospel book, with elongated fingers, stooped shoulders, knit brows, and rapid brushwork, became an important element of medieval style for centuries, and occurs in other Carolingian centres, such as Tours and Metz, from about 840. Whether Reims, or the chief painter of this book, was the origin of the style is uncertain, although often asserted, but the great quality of the work is beyond question....

Article

Italian, 9th century, male.

Painter.

This artist's name is mentioned in the archives of Verona.

Article

Erluin  

French, 9th century, male.

Active in Tours.

Miniaturist.

This artist illustrated religious books.

Article

A matching jug and bowl used for hand washing during and after meals and for toilet purposes. They were made in precious and base metals, ceramics, glass and enamel. Early medieval ewers are usually in the form of animals or figures (see Aquamanile). In the Middle Ages their use was ceremonial as well as practical. From the 15th century ewers and basins were acquired by institutions and corporations for ceremonial presentation and as ambassadorial gifts, becoming prized display objects. In form and decoration the ewer and basin altered with stylistic developments, and they were always of the most elaborate design and finish. With the increased use of cutlery from the late 17th century, ewers and basins had less function, although mainly ceramic examples were used as an accoutrement for toilet use until the advent of widespread domestic plumbing in the early 20th century.

E. M. Alcorn: ‘Some of the Kings of England Curiously Engraven: An Elizabethan Ewer and Basin in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston’, ...

Article

Irish, 9th century, male.

Died 846.

Miniaturist.

Illuminator of the Book of Armagh in Trinity College, Dublin.

Dublin (Trinity College Library): Book of Armagh