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Article

French, 15th century, male.

Goldsmith. Religious subjects.

Adrien de Tours was paid a sum of 431 pounds and 10 sols in 1492 for the production of a shrine to St Eutrope.

Article

Italian, 15th – 16th century, male.

Active in Perugia.

Born 1479 or 1480; died after 1553.

Painter. Religious subjects.

Domenico di Paride was the son of the goldsmith Paride Alfani. He studied with Perugino and was a fellow student of Raphael and Rosso Fiorentino. His son Orazio was his greatest disciple, and for many years a number of his works were attributed to his son....

Article

John N. Lupia

Type of ewer, usually of metal, used for the washing of hands in a liturgical or domestic context. It is often zoomorphic in form and usually has two openings, one for filling with water and the other for pouring. In their original usage aquamanilia expressed the symbolic significance of the lavabo, the ritual washing of the hands by the priest before vesting, before the consecration of the Eucharist and after mass. The earliest production of aquamanilia is associated with Mosan art of the Meuse Valley in northern France, and with Lower Saxony in north-east Germany. The majority of surviving examples are made of a variety of bronze that resembles gold when polished, while nearly all those made of precious metals are known only from church inventories.

Church documents refer to aquamanilia as early as the 5th century, when canon regulations stipulated that on ordination the subdeacon should receive such a vessel. Various documents from the 5th century to the beginning of the 11th sometimes use the term to denote both the ewer and its basin. Sometime after the beginning of the 11th century the term became transferred to a type of vessel, usually in the shape of an animal (e.g. lion, stag, horse; ...

Article

Italian, 16th century, male.

Painter. Religious subjects.

Francesco Baiardi was the son of the goldsmith Gilberto Baiardi. He worked in Parma. Known for his Painting of St James (1542).

Article

16th century, male.

Active in Ansbach from 1582 to 1614 (?).

Engraver, goldsmith.

Examples of his work include Christ on the Cross, Hunter and Hunted, Little Book of Animals (seven engravings), Grotesques (two), Ornaments and Sundials (six), Grotesque Ornaments (four) and Little Book of the Forest...

Article

Italian, 16th century, male.

Active also active in Poland.

Born c. 1500, probably in Verona; died 1570, near Parma.

Engraver, goldsmith, medallist, architect. Religious subjects.

Giovanni Caraglio was one of the greatest engravers of his period and enjoyed a considerable reputation in Italy and abroad, particularly in Poland where he created medals for King Sigismond. When he returned to Italy he settled first in Verona and later near Parma, where he remained until his death....

Article

Italian, 16th century, male.

Born 1530, in Perugia; died 1576, in Perugia.

Painter, sculptor (bronze/marble/cast iron/clay), draughtsman, goldsmith, architect. Religious subjects, historical subjects, mythological subjects. Groups, statues, low reliefs.

Vincenzo Danti was the brother of Girolamo and Egnazio Danti. He worked initially in the goldsmiths' trade, in whose guild he enrolled in ...

Article

French, 16th century, male.

Born c. 1518, in Orléans; died 1583 or 1595, in Strasbourg.

Engraver (burin), draughtsman, medallist, goldsmith. Religious subjects, historical subjects, allegorical subjects. Decorative designs.

Fontainebleau School (related to).

This interesting artist was first and foremost an engraver of medals, and worked with the famous sculptor and engraver Benvenuto Cellini during the latter's stay in Paris. Delaulne was an accomplished burin engraver, and his drawing and engraving is remarkable for its precision and finish. He lived for some while in Strasbourg, which may perhaps explain the unmistakable influence of the 16th-century German 'petit maîtres' (little masters) in his approach to engraving. He engraved several copies of work of Marcantonio Raimondi, and produced engravings after Primaticcio, Rosso and Niccolo dell'Abbate. He signed his work ...

Article

French, 16th century, male.

Born 1485, in Langres; died after 1561, c. 1570 according to some sources.

Engraver (burin), goldsmith. Religious subjects, mythological subjects.

Jean Duvet was known as the Master of the Unicorn because he was chiefly known for a series of panels depicting ...

Article

Fibula  

Niamh Whitfield

[Lat.: ‘brooch’]

Metal dress-pin that not only was used as a clothes’ fastener, but also acted as a sign of an individual’s allegiance, wealth, and status (see fig.). Brooches are common finds in pre-Christian graves of the Germanic peoples and Vikings, enabling inferences to be drawn about their uses, the garments to which they were attached, and migration patterns. For the later Middle Ages, comparable information can be gleaned not only from the objects but also figural representations, wills, and inventories.

Many brooches from the early Middle Ages descend from Roman fibulae of different types. These include the penannular brooches from Ireland and Britain, fastened by a pin slotted through a gap in a ring; disc-brooches, fastened by a pin on the back, and worn especially by Germanic women; and the various elongated Germanic bow brooches, which seem to be adaptations of the cross-bow fibulae worn by Roman officials in Late Antiquity (...

Article

Italian, 16th century, male.

Born before 1486; died 1557, in Bologna.

Painter, engraver. Religious subjects.

Giacomo was the son of Francesco Francia. Most of his works were painted jointly with his brother Giulio. He also worked as a goldsmith.

Bologna (Accademia): The Virgin Mary, St John and Four Saints...

Article

Italian, 15th century, male.

Born 1449, in Florence; died 11 January 1494, in Florence.

Painter (fresco and panel), illuminator, mosaicist, goldsmith. Religious subjects, portraits.

Florentine School.

Ghirlandaio was initially trained as a goldsmith and, according to Giorgio Vasari, was the pupil of Alesso Baldovinetti. He seems to have undertaken few projects as a goldsmith—even Vasari states that he did not like the profession—and the majority of his career was spent working as a fresco and panel painter, as well as a mosaicist. His first major commission was for the frescoes on the right nave wall of the church of Ognissanti, Florence (...

Article

Jutland  

Harriet Sonne de Torrens

Mainland peninsula of modern-day Denmark and one of the three provinces (Jutland, Zealand and Skåne, southern Sweden) that constituted medieval Denmark. The conversion of the Danes to Christianity initiated a reorganization of the economic, social and legal structures of Denmark that would change the shape of Jutland dramatically between the 11th and 14th centuries. Under Knut the Great, King of Denmark and England (reg 1019–35), Jutland acquired a stable diocesan system (1060) that enabled a systematic collection of tithes and the growth of religious institutions between 1050 and 1250. During this period, agricultural practices changed as manor houses and landed estates were established, producing wealth for the ruling families. Under Valdemar I (reg 1157–82) and Knut VI (reg 1182–1202), Jutland witnessed a great building activity; on Jutland more than 700 stone churches were constructed, some replacing earlier wooden churches, each needing liturgical furnishings. Workshops, such as that of the renowned sculptor Horder and many others, were actively engaged in carving stone baptismal fonts (e.g. Malt, Skodborg, Ut, Stenild), capitals, reliefs (Vestervig, Aalborg) and tympana (Gjøl, Ørsted, Stjaer, Skibet), wooden cult figures, Jutland’s golden altars (Lisbjerg, Sahl, Stadil, Tamdrup) and wall paintings. Evidence of the earliest wall paintings in Jutland, ...

Article

German, 16th century, male.

Born c. 1489, in Nuremberg; died 1532, in Nuremberg.

Painter, engraver, goldsmith. Religious subjects.

Nuremberg School.

Like many German engravers at that time, Ludwig, or Lukas, Krug was also a gold and silversmith. He is also said to have been a painter, and to have worked with marble and steel. Little else is known about him....

Article

Mathieu  

French, 15th century, male.

Active in Florencec.1450.

Engraver, goldsmith, niellist. Religious subjects.

Article

Carola Hicks

Term used to describe a period spanning the decline and fall of the Roman Empire and the foundation of the medieval Christian kingdoms of Europe between the 5th and 8th centuries ad. The arts of the European Migration period are varied, reflecting the styles, techniques, and beliefs of the many different peoples involved, yet there are so many common features that it is possible to speak of Migration period art as a unified concept. From the surviving evidence, it is mainly a metalworkers’ art, carried out in a highly skilled manner by able craftsmen; the stone sculpture and architecture of the Classical civilizations were copied, though with a different approach. There must also have been much richly decorated organic material, but the survival of wood, leather, and textiles is only fragmentary.

Although the period of migrations is sometimes regarded as a disruption following the stable conditions of the Roman Empire, the constant movement of tribes and peoples was in fact the common pattern of prehistoric Europe; the Roman imposition of frontiers created barriers that were eventually penetrated by the sheer pressure of population movements. In the first few centuries ...

Article

Italian, 16th century, male.

Active in Rome.

Born in Ancona; died c. 1590, in Rome.

Painter, medallist, engraver (burin). Religious subjects, portraits.

School of Rome.

We cannot be certain that he was a painter. He is, however, mentioned as the pupil, or at least imitator, of Taddeo Zuccaro and became a member of the Congregazione dei Virtuosi. In ...

Article

Italian, 16th century, male.

Active in Sienac.1549.

Born c. 1508, in Castelnuova della Berardenga, near Siena; died 1592.

Painter, glass painter, medallist. Religious subjects.

The pupil of Claude de Marseille, he is considered a prolific medal maker. He often executed works after the drawings of the Florentine painter Perino del Vaga. In ...

Article

French, 16th century, male.

Active in Bourges.

Born 16th century, in Châteauroux.

Sculptor, medallist.

Marsault Paul worked from 1511 to 1515 on Bourges Cathedral, contributing several scenes from the lives of Christ and the Virgin Mary.

Article

Italian, 15th century, male.

Born c. 1443, in Florence; died at the end of 1496, in Rome.

Painter, sculptor, engraver, goldsmith. Religious subjects, allegorical subjects, mythological subjects, portraits.

Florentine School.

Piero del Pollaiuolo was the younger brother of Antonio del Pollaiuolo by ten years. He studied for a short time under Andrea del Castagno, but left to work alongside his brother around ...