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[Châlons-sur-Marne]

Collegiate church in Champagne, Marne, France. A chapel is known to have existed on the site from at least the 9th century ad. The church was a regular centre of pilgrimage, particularly after 1128, when an epidemic swept the country. In the 12th century Notre-Dame-en-Vaux was under the patronage of the cathedral chapter, but the canons of Notre-Dame vigorously resented any intervention in their administration. Conflicts easily flared up, culminating in a dispute (1180–87) concerning legal rights and prebends.

In 1157 a tower collapsed, initiating the complete reconstruction of the church. The first building campaign (1157–c. 1175) involved the lower levels of the nave and transept. At the same time, a cloister with an important sculptural programme was erected on the north side of the nave. After c. 1180 the construction of the church was interrupted, perhaps owing to the dispute with the cathedral chapter. It is likely that the cloister was already finished at that time. The church was completed in a second campaign from ...

Article

S. J. Vernoit

(b Lölling, July 27, 1878; d Vienna, July 8, 1961).

Austrian historian of Byzantine, Islamic and Indian art. He studied art history and archaeology at the universities of Vienna and Graz and in 1902 completed his doctorate at Graz under Josef Strzygowski and Wilhelm Gurlitt, a study of the paintings in a manuscript of Dioskurides’ De materia medica (Vienna, Österreich. Nbib., Cod. med. gr. 1) copied for the Byzantine princess Juliana Anicia before ad 512. After military service (1902–3), Diez pursued further research in Rome and Istanbul and worked in Vienna as a volunteer (1905–7) at the Österreichisches Museum für Kunst und Industrie. From 1908 to 1911 he worked in Berlin at the Kaiser-Friedrich Museum with Max Jacob Friedländer, Wilhelm Bode and Friedrich Sarre. He was then appointed lecturer at the University of Vienna. From 1912 to 1914 he made trips to Iran, India, Egypt and Anatolia, which led to articles on Islamic art and architecture and ...

Article

Lake  

Jo Kirby

Term derived from the early medieval Latin lacca to indicate both lake pigment and the products of the lac insect (Kerria lacca). The latter was imported into Europe from India, and it yielded both red dyestuff and, as a by-product, shellac (see Lacquer §I 2.). Until the 18th century lake, without further qualification, usually indicated red pigments only.

Lake pigments are prepared by the precipitation of a soluble organic Dye on to an insoluble, inorganic, adsorptive substrate. The pigment is formed by the chemical reaction that occurs when a suitable reagent, such as alum, is added to an aqueous solution containing the dyestuff and, usually, one or more other chemicals, such as sodium or potassium carbonate. These chemicals react with the alum to form the substrate, an insoluble product of the reaction. During the reaction the dyestuff becomes intimately combined with the substrate, in this example hydrated ...

Article

Michael Curschmann

The medieval term mappa mundi (also forma mundi, historia/istoire) covers a broad array of maps of the world of which roughly 1100 survive. These have resisted systematic classification, but the clearly dominant type is one that aims at comprehensively symbolistic representation. Its early, schematic form is a disc composed of three continents surrounded and separated from one another by water (“T-O Map”) and associated with the three sons of Noah: Asia (Shem) occupies all of the upper half, Europe (Japhet) to the left and Africa (Ham) to the right share the lower half. Quadripartite cartographic schemes included the antipodes as a fourth continent, but the tripartite model was adopted by the large majority of the more developed world maps in use from the 11th century on and—with important variations—well into the Renaissance. While details were added as available space permitted, the Mediterranean continued to serve as the vertical axis and, with diminishing clarity, the rivers Don and Nile as the horizontal one. The map also continues to be ‘oriented’ towards Asia, where paradise sits at the very top. A circular ocean forms the perimeter and not infrequently the city of Jerusalem constitutes its centre....