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Article

Peter Grossmann

Site of a Christian city and pilgrimage centre in the Maryūt Desert, c. 45 km south-west of Alexandria, Egypt. It grew up around the shrine of St Menas, who was martyred during the persecution of the Christians instigated by Diocletian (reg 285–305). The ancient name of the site is not known, and the position of the saint’s grave had been long forgotten until, according to legend, several miracle cures led to its rediscovery. The place then quickly developed into an increasingly major centre of pilgrimage where, among other things, the so-called Menas ampules were manufactured as pilgrim flasks and achieved particular renown. The first excavations of the site were undertaken by ...

Article

Arabic School, 10th century, male.

Died 997.

Painter.

None of the works of this artist are known.

Article

Egyptian, 10th century, male.

Painter. Historical subjects, landscapes.

Al-Kutami was a member of the Kutama tribe and was brought up by Banu-el-Muallim, who painted the mosque situated high up in the Karafa mountains, near Cairo in 976 AD. He painted a work entitled Joseph at the Fountain...

Article

Judith McKenzie, Gordon Campbell, R. R. R. Smith, Wiktor A. Daszewski, A. H. Enklaar, Dominic Montserrat, C. Walters and Wladyslaw B. Kubiak

Reviser Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

Egyptian city situated on the Mediterranean coast west of the delta of the River Nile, capital of Egypt from c. 320 bc to ad 642, seaport and centre of ancient Greek culture.

Alexandria was founded in 331 bc by Alexander, on the site of the small Egyptian settlement of Rhakotis. Its location, with access by canal to the River Nile, enabled it to become an important and highly prosperous trading centre, and by ...

Article

Italian, 16th century, male.

Activec.1560.

Engraver (wood).

Antonio da Cremona worked in the chiaroscuro technique. Six engravings have been attributed to him: Flight into Egypt, signed Ant Crem and dated 1547, Holy Family, signed Ant Cremonensis, 1550, Portrait of Mucius Scaevola, Marriage of St Catherine...

Article

Kirk Ambrose

Lithuanian art historian, scholar of folklore and Egyptology, and diplomat of Russian birth. Son of the celebrated Lithuanian Symbolist poet of the same name, Jurgis Baltrušaitis II studied under Henri(-Joseph) Focillon at the Sorbonne and earned the PhD in 1931. The concerns of his mentor are evident in ...

Article

Bawit  

C. Walters

Site on the west bank of the River Nile, c. 16 km west of Daryūt in the province of Asyūt, Egypt. A large monastery with rich sculptural and painted decoration originally lay in the desert 1 km to the west. According to tradition it was founded by the monk ...

Article

Flemish, 15th – 16th century, male.

Died in Ghent.

Painter, miniaturist, illustrator. Religious subjects.

Bruges School, Flemish School.

The first member of his family to be an artist, Alexander Bening was to be followed by a number of Flemish miniaturists of particular importance in 16th-century Flanders. He entered the Ghent painters' guild on ...

Article

Flemish, 16th century, female.

Active in London.

Died after 1570.

Miniaturist.

Flemish School.

Lievine Bening was the daughter of Simon Bening. She was almost as famous a miniaturist as her father. King Henry VIII of England summoned her to England where she settled permanently from 1545...

Article

Flemish, 16th century, male.

Active still in 1519.

Miniaturist.

Flemish School.

Paul Bening was the second son of Alexander Bening.

Article

Flemish, 16th century, male.

Born c., in Ghent; died, in Bruges.

Painter, miniaturist, illuminator.

Bruges School, Flemish School.

Simon Bening was the elder son of Alexander Bening. He entered the Guild of St John and St Luke in Bruges in 1508. Other sources suggest that he was a master in Bruges in ...

Article

Italian, 15th century, male.

Born 15th century, of Venetian origin.

Painter.

Uncle of Niccolo Brancaleone, the painter, Francesco Brancaleone worked in the Orient in the 15th century. He travelled through Syria and Egypt and, from 1434, executed church paintings for the king of Abyssinia.

Article

Simon P. Ellis

Ruined city on the North African coast at the end of a narrow peninsula pointing into the Bay of Tunis. Now an archaeological site at the edge of Tunis itself, Carthage was founded, according to legend, by the Phoenician queen Elyssa in 814 bc. It became a major Mediterranean power until its destruction by the Romans in ...

Article

Venetian ruler and patron. He was the longest-serving doge in the history of Venice. His reign was a period of constant warfare, during which Venice consolidated her hold on her mainland possessions and acquired further territory. His only surviving son, Jacopo Foscari (c. 1416–57...

Article

Egyptian site c. 15 km west of Beni Suef. The city of Henen-nesut was known in the Greco-Roman period (332 bcad 395) as Herakleopolis Magna because of the identification of the local ram-headed god Harsaphes with the Greek Herakles. However, it first rose to prominence as the national capital during the First Intermediate Period (...

Article

Egyptian, 13th century, male.

Active in Cairo at the end of the 13th century.

Miniaturist.

Ibn Daya was a chancellor to the Sultan Mameluk Baybar and painted several pictures representing the Pilgrimage to Mecca.

Article

Egyptian, 10th century, male.

Active at the end of the 10th century.

Painter. Local scenes.

Ibn El Azîz was a painter at the court of the Fatimids in Cairo. He was mainly in the service of Vizir Bazuri, for whom he painted among other works a ...

Article

A. J. Mills

Egyptian oasis c. 600 km south of Cairo and c. 200 km west of the Nile. Throughout history, Kharga was closely connected with the civilization of the Nile Valley as an important stage in the great overland trade route known as the Darb el-Arbain (‘Forty Days’ Road’) between Egypt and the Sudan. Ancient texts praise the oasis products. The oasis is narrow but measures ...

Article

Swiss, 16th century, male.

Born 16th century, in Geneva.

Painter.

Jean de l'Arpe worked for Ayma de Gingins in about 1521, at the chapel of the convent of St Mary of Egypt in Chambéry.

Article

Italian, 16th century, male.

Born 16th century, in San Gimignano (Tuscany).

Painter, engraver.

Among Francesco di Michele Leoncini's works is Flight into Egypt, an engraving that is free and lively in its drawing, and is signed: Francesco Leoncini de Ceminianoff et mo. There are works by him in several of the churches of Pistoia....