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Article

Alan Powers

(Irving Jeffrey)

(b Haiphong, French Indo-China [now Vietnam], Oct 16, 1900; d Rodmersham, Kent, Nov 8, 1979).

English illustrator and author. From 1905 he grew up in England, becoming a professional artist in 1926 after part-time study at the Westminster School of Art, London. He became known as an illustrator of genre scenes in a variety of media, often with a comic Victorian flavour. He was best known for illustrated stories, the first of which, Little Tim and the Brave Sea-captain (Oxford, 1936), was followed by numerous imaginative and popular children’s books and by many other illustrated books. Baggage to the Enemy (London, 1941) reflected his appointment in 1940 as an Official War Artist, recording the German invasion of France, and the North African and Italian campaigns. His freelance career continued after the war with a steady production of illustrative and ephemeral work in an instantly recognizable style that relied on ink line and delicate washes.

The Young Ardizzone: An Autobiographical Fragment (London, 1970) Diary of a War Artist...

Article

Japanese, 20th century, male.

Born 1882, in Yokohama; died 1974.

Painter, illustrator.

Groups: Issuikai, Nitten.

Ikuma Arishima studied under Fujishima Takeji, a painter with leanings towards Western art. He was a member of the Issui-kai and the Nitten and subsequently founded the Nika-kai . In 1923...

Article

Xu Bing  

Melissa Chiu

(b Chongqing, 1955).

Chinese installation artist . Xu Bing spent much of his childhood in Beijing where his parents were professors at Beijing University. He said that being surrounded by books during this formative period in his life gave him an intense interest in them. Xu studied printmaking at the Central Academy of Fine Arts in Beijing (1987). One of Xu’s most memorable early works is Tian Shu ( A Book from the Sky , 1987–91), which was created during the 1985 New Wave Movement in China—a period of new-found freedom for artistic experimentation. Tian Shu consisted of reams of paper printed with Chinese characters, each one in some way incorrect, so that the cumulative effect is a library of nonsensical words. The labour needed to create this art work was substantial, taking the artist nearly four years to complete carving the individual characters into woodblocks. The reams of printed paper were exhibited in three different ways: as traditional hand-bound books, suspended large scrolls, and wall posters. ...

Article

Ralph Croizier

revised by Walter Davis

[Wu Ch’ang-shih; Wu Ch’ang-shuo; ming Jun, Junqing]

(b Anji, Zhejiang Province, 1844; d Shanghai, 1927).

Chinese painter, calligrapher, and seal-carver. The most prominent figure in the Shanghai school during the early 20th century, he rejuvenated the genre of bird-and-flower painting, contributed to the internationalization of the Chinese art world, and helped lead a national revival of traditional Chinese painting and calligraphy in the 1910s and 1920s. Although he initially aspired to become a scholar–official and passed the imperial civil service examinations at the county (xiucai) level, he later made his living as a professional artist, developing an international clientele and a reputation as a literati painter and calligrapher that continues to the present.

While pursuing a career in government service, Wu mastered the Confucian classics and studied poetry, epigraphy, and calligraphy (see China, People’s Republic of, §IV, 2, (vii)). Contact with such professional painters as Ren Yi in the cultural and commercial metropolis of Shanghai during the late 19th century opened up to Wu the possibility of a professional artist’s career. After a brief appointment as a county official in ...

Article

Elizabeth F. Bennett

[ Chang Ta-ch’ien ; Chang Dai–chien ; hao Dafengtang]

(b Neijiang, Sichuan Province, May 10, 1899; d Taipei, April 2, 1983).

Chinese painter, calligrapher, collector and forger . From an artistic family, he began to paint under the tutelage of his mother, Ceng Yi, and did his first paid painting for the local fortune-teller when he was 12 years old. Zhang’s elder sister gave him his first lessons in the classics. At 15 he embarked on three years of schooling at the Qiujing Academy in Chongqing. In 1917 he went to Kyoto in Japan to join his elder brother Zhang Shanzi (1882–1940). Here, Daqian learnt the art of textile painting, and the brothers collaborated in painting tigers: Shanzi painted the animals and Daqian the surroundings. Shanzi kept a pet tiger in the house, using it as his artistic model. In 1919 Zhang returned to China, where he continued his studies in Shanghai with the scholar Ceng Xi. He also studied with the artist Li Ruiqing (1867–1920) and was exposed to Li’s calligraphy in seal script (...

Article

Chinese, 20th century, male.

Active in the USA from 1980.

Born 7 October 1939, in Shanxi.

Painter, draughtsman, screen printer, illustrator. Figures, scenes with figures, landscapes, landscapes with figures, flowers. Postage stamps, murals.

Ding Shaoguang studied at the Central Academy of Fine Arts in Beijing in ...

Article

Chinese, 20th–21st century, male.

Born 1968, in Sichuan Province.

Painter, illustrator. Portraits.

Feng Zhengjie graduated as a master of fine arts from the oil painting department of the Sichuan Academy of Arts in 1995 and began teaching in the fine arts department of the Beijing Normal Institute. Feng’s work borders on kitsch-like caricature. He uses the garish colours of Pop Art and popular culture, as well as traditional Chinese iconography. Feng is a central figure of the Gaudy art movement, which emerged in the mid-1990s and was influenced by Pop Art, employing bright, garish colours and referencing advertising imagery. Feng’s large-scale portraits resemble Andy Warhol’s prints of celebrities....

Article

Fu Sida  

Chinese, 20th century, male.

Died 1960.

Painter, draughtsman, illustrator.

At first, Fu Sida studied traditional Chinese painting in Beijing. In 1937, he left for the USA, then India and Malaya. During World War II, he taught at the Guilin Institute, and then in Shanghai. During the 1950s he was imprisoned and persecuted. Fu was one of a generation of artists who had come into contact with western painting during the war. His drawing is sober and effective. He made a series of studies of the traditional Chinese theatre, which stand comparison with the work of Guan Ling and Lin Fengmian, more in terms of his aims than his style....

Article

Japanese, 20th century, male.

Born 1909, in Gumma Prefecture; died 1935.

Painter, print artist, illustrator.

Fujimaki Yoshio’s work was published in 1931in the print artists’ magazine Kitsutsuki. In 1931 and 1932, he took part in events at the Japan Print Association. In 1935, he began a series of illustrations for a book on the Sumidagawa, the river that crosses Tokyo, but he died before completing them. His early style swung between expressionism and cubism and later evolved into a form of abstraction....

Article

Japanese, 20th century, male.

Born 1898, in Shin Hotta (Niigata); died 1979.

Painter, print artist, illustrator.

Acting on the recommendation of the mayor of Niigata, Fukiya Koji went to study under the painter Otake in Tokyo at the age of 14. Between 1916 and 1919...

Article

Frederick Baekeland

(b Suruga Prov. [now part of Shizuoka Prefect.], 1862; d Tokyo, 1922).

Japanese calligrapher. Gadō was one of the outstanding Meiji-period (1868–1912) kana (Japanese phonetic script) calligraphers. Having lost his father, a martial arts instructor, when he was a youth, he went to Tokyo, working first for a fish wholesaler and then as a clerk in the Ministry of Finance. He spent all his spare time studying calligraphy and, apart from some later training with Naruse Taiiki (1827–1902), a kanji (Chinese script) calligrapher, he was essentially self-taught. In 1890 Gadō made his name with his rendition of Ki no Tsurayuki’s (?ad 872–945) classic kana preface to Japan’s first imperially sponsored poetic anthology, the Kokinwakashu (‘Collection of Japanese poems from ancient and modern times’; commissioned in 905). It was Gadō’s calligraphy on a set of poem cards (shikishi) presented to the dowager empress in the same year that ensured his appointment in 1891 to the faculty of the Peers School for Girls in Tokyo, where he served until his death; he also taught several members of the royal family. In ...

Article

Chinese, 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 4 January 1940, in Ganzhou (Jiangxi Province).

Painter, draughtsman, writer, illustrator. Stage sets.

The Nobel-prizewinning writer Gao Xingjian was a painter even before becoming a novelist, essayist, dramatist and director. He studied painting at Nanjing under the painter Yu Yungzhong. Then, in ...

Article

Gekko  

Japanese, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1859; died 1920.

Painter.

Gekko was a self-taught painter from Tokyo who is known as a genre painter and illustrator. He also taught himself the art of woodblock printing.

Article

Qi Gong  

Weihe Chen

[ Ch’i Kung ; xing Aixinjueluo ; zi Yuanbo ; bieshu Yuanbai , Shaowen , Changqing ]

(b Beijing, July 26, 1912; d Beijing, June 30, 2005).

Chinese calligrapher, art consultant and writer. Born into a declining family of imperial lineage, he lost his father as a child and was unable to continue his studies after his early youth. However, he studied diligently on his own and later became a pupil of Chen Yuan. He practised calligraphy from the age of six, beginning with the styles of Ouyang Xun ( ad 557–641) and Yan Zhenqing ( ad 709–785), and later made a thorough and exhaustive study of tie (model manuscripts) and bei (inscriptions) through the ages.

Qi is well versed in every style of script, especially in kai (regular script), xing (running script) and cao (cursive script). In the debate over the respective merits of the tie and bei he favours the former. By studying model manuscripts, he argues, one can perceive how the ancients wielded the brush, while inscriptions on stone tablets were usually carved directly on the surface of stone tablets, thus losing the original features of the calligraphy. Qi also tends to place more emphasis the structure of a character than the brushstrokes, a viewpoint that differs from the majority. His own calligraphic style is remarkable for its well-knit structure and distinct brushwork. He is one of the most popular calligraphers in contemporary China....

Article

Elizabeth F. Bennett

[ Yeh Kung-ch’uo ; zi Yufu, Yuhu ; hao Xiaan, Juyuan ]

(b Panyu, Guangdong Province, 1881; d 1968).

Chinese calligrapher, painter, archaeologist, collector, poet and government official. He was born into a wealthy, scholarly family, received a classical education and as a youth of 16 founded a school in Guangzhou (Canton) and a publishing company in Shanghai; at 17 he enrolled in law school at the Imperial University in Beijing. His studies were interrupted two years later by the Boxer Rebellion of 1900, whereupon Ye moved to Wuchang, Hubei Province, and taught history, geography and modern languages for four years. In 1906 he began his official career as a specialist in railways and communications. After 1911, Ye held various positions in the Republican government and was instrumental in the establishment of Jiaotong University in Shanghai; he also served as director of classics for several years at Peking [Beijing] University. After the Sino-Japanese War (1937–45), he gave up his government career and devoted himself to the arts and research, although he continued to serve on educational and cultural committees for the rest of his life. In particular, he became involved in the committee to organize the simplification of Chinese characters. In ...

Article

Japanese, 20th century, male.

Active in France from 1918.

Born 9 December 1891, in Yokohama; died 13 December 1980, in Paris.

Painter (gouache), watercolourist, engraver, illustrator. Landscapes with figures, still-lifes, flowers.

After graduating from Meiji University in Tokyo, Hasegawa Kiyoshi studied oil painting with Okada Saburosuke and Fujishima Takeji. In ...

Article

Japanese, 20th century, male.

Born 10 November 1883, in Kobe (Hyogo); died 1945.

Painter, illustrator.

The son of a civil servant who was a man of letters and a Confucian, Hashimoto Kansetsu studied Classical culture and then went to the Shijo School in Kyoto, where he worked under the painter Takeuchi. In ...

Article

Japanese, 20th century, female.

Active in the USA.

Born 10 July 1890, in Japan.

Painter, watercolourist, illustrator.

Hashimoto Michi studied at the University of California and was a member of the Watercolourists’ Club of California.

Article

Japanese, 20th century, male.

Born 1877, in Akita Prefecture; died 1933.

Painter, draughtsman, illustrator. Landscapes, flowers, birds.

Hyakusui was the son of the painter Hirafuku Suian. As Teizo he had a reputation as a poet. He started his artistic training at the school of Kawabata Gyokusho (...

Article

Mayching Kao

revised by Fang-mei Chou

[Pu Xinyu; ming Ru; hao Xishan Yishi; studio name Hanyutang]

(b Beijing, Jul 24, 1896; d Taipei, Nov 18, 1963).

Chinese painter, calligrapher, and poet. P’u was a descendant of the Qing imperial line (1644–1911), and his life was adversely affected by the fall of the dynasty—a situation attested by one of his favorite seals, jiuwangsun (former prince). He started practicing calligraphy at the age of 4 and received a classical education at the age of 6. His calligraphy modeled the upright regular script of the Tang-era monk Guifeng’s Stele, and after the age of 17, during a retreat to the Jietai Temple outside Beijing, he befriended an older monk, Monk Yongguang (or Haiyin, 1861–1924), whose calligraphy style P’u appreciated and studied in order to loosen up his own. Eventually, he mastered all kinds of calligraphy styles. Meanwhile, he copied paintings of ancient masters in the family collection, starting with the works of the Four Wangs (early Qing), then works from the 10th-century Dong-Ju tradition, then the 13th-century artists Ma Yuan, Xia Gui, and Liu Songnian, and the 16th-century Wu School masters. His prose style emulated Six Dynasties–era prose, which placed emphasis on parallelism, ornateness, tonal and grammatical balance, rhyme, and abundant literary allusions....