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Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 17 June 1931, in National City (California).

Painter, video artist, photographer. Artist’s books.

Conceptual Art.

John Baldessari lives and works in Santa Monica, California. At the end of the 1950s, he decided to abandon painting and burned his pictures. He has stated that he profoundly disagreed with art in general, and therefore decided to give people what they understood best: written language and photography....

Article

British, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 26 May 1943, in Long Eaton (Derbyshire); died 14 October 2005, in London.

Painter, printmaker, draughtsman, photographer, film maker. Artists’ books.

Artist Placement Group.

Ian Breakwell studied at the Derby College of Art (1961-1965). After graduation, he moved to Smithfields in London. In the 1970s he was a member of the Artist Placement Group (APG) and was posted to the Department for Health and Social Security where he produced a film, ...

Article

American, 20th–21st century, male.

Born 1973, in Hong Kong.

Video artist, multi-media artist, activist, and publisher. Artists’ books

Paul Chan spent his early childhood in Hong Kong but immigrated to Omaha, Nebraska, in his youth. He began his BFA in video and digital arts at the Art Institute of Chicago in ...

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 22 May 1963, in Paris.

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman, mixed media, assemblage artist, video artist. Multimedia, artists' books.

Neo-Conceptual Art.

Groupe des Frères Ripoulin.

Claude Closky studied at the École des Arts Décoratifs in Paris and was a founder member of the Frères Ripoulin group. He was awarded the ...

Article

Maria Elena Buszek

(b Toronto, 1958).

Canadian photographer, video artist, and writer, active in USA. Davey variously studied design, drawing, and painting at Montreal’s Concordia University, finally settling on photography, in which she received a BFA in 1982. She later earned an MFA at the University of California San Diego, and began post-graduate studies at the Whitney Independent Study Program in 1988. Frustrated by the tendencies of such contemporaries as Andreas Gursky and Gregory Crewdson to, as she put it, ‘overproduce, overenlarge, overconsume’, Davey sought rather to draw on ‘the inherently surrealist, contingent, “found” quality of the vernacular photograph’(Davey 2014).

Davey’s photographs and videos consist predominantly of quiet vignettes from everyday life: homes filled with dusty, over-stuffed shelves, crammed with books, albums, bottles, and art supplies, and tables with momentary arrangements of these objects in use; lovingly rendered still-lifes of the near extinct, ad-hoc displays of button vendors, newsstands, and hi-fi equipment; always suggesting but rarely depicting the acquisitive, inquisitive people living and working in these humble, very much lived-in spaces. Her breakthrough ...

Article

British, 20th – 21st century, female.

Active in Germany.

Born 12 November 1965, in Canterbury.

Painter, draughtswoman, filmmaker, photographer, installation artist. Artists' books.

Tacita Dean studied painting at the Falmouth School of Art (graduated 1988), the Supreme School of Fine Art in Athens (1989...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Active in Belgium.

Born 1940, in New Jersey.

Sculptor, draughtsman, installation artist, collage artist, photographer, screen printer, video artist. Artists’ books.

Peter Downsbrough lives and works between New York and Brussels. His works, founded on concepts of spatiality and temporality, are intended for the urban environment in the form of installations, sculptures, books, collages, photographs, screen prints, postcards and films. Since the 1960s he has been producing three-dimensional works, exploring various materials in a serial process. In the 1970s he enlarged these two concepts to include notions of movement and space, notably in the series ...

Article

Swiss, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1963, in Geneva.

Installation artist, video artist. Multimedia, artists' books.

In 1989, Graumann graduated from the École Supérieure d'Art Visuel in Geneva. He has participated in group exhibitions, including 1995, the Biennale de Lyons with his work Raoul Pictore Tries to Find his Style...

Article

Canadian, 20th–21st century, female.

Born 1957 in Toronto.

Active in London.

Printmaker (etching, offset lithography, digital prints), installation artist, film and video artist, curator. Artists’ books

DeniseHawrysio studied fine art at Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario before completing a master’s degree at San Francisco Art Institute. Her work includes site-specific installations (often involving plasterboard), super-8 film, etching, and lithography but using social engagement, reminiscent of performance. Her artists’ books are typically small in edition and involve cutting up pre-existing materials, for example, ...

Article

Austrian, 20th – 21st century, female.

Active in Rotterdam and Vienna.

Born 1970, in Vienna.

Painter, draughtswoman, engraver, video artist, performance artist, installation artist, photographer, mixed media. Artists' books.

Elke Krystufek paints her own body, produces self-portraits and writes her thoughts across her works; a woman's life constantly historiated and revisited. Her work is a feminist claim that also illustrates the increasingly artificial boundary between private and public life today and the logical consequences of this: the representation of our emotions, 'déjà-vu' replacing the true 'ego' that the artist is actually trying to reach. Though she accepts an affinity with the Expressionist Egon Schiele, she does not recognise any association with Viennese Actionism. Among her performances, mention may be made of the following: ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Active from 1954 in France.

Born 26 November 1929, in the Bronx (New York City).

Draughtsman, engraver (etching), illustrator. Figures, nudes, landscapes, interiors, still-lifes. Stage costumes and sets, videos, artists' books.

Gregory Masurovsky studied at Black Mountain College in North Carolina in ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1933; died 19 November 2008.

Painter, film maker, photographer, illustrator.

After a less than enthusiastic reception that greeted one of his exhibitions in 1964, Charles Matton decided to stop showing his work, and became the star illustrator of the American magazine ...

Article

Romanian, 20th century, male.

Active in the USA from 1973.

Born 4 November 1926, in Sighisoara.

Painter, draughtsman, illustrator, poet, film maker.

Stefan Munteanu made numerous films for which he received many prizes.

His work was a product of colourful reality transfigured by fantasy images where landscapes and figures merged. He mainly illustrated poetry and exhibited his drawings for the first time in Bucharest in ...

Article

Francis Summers

(b Dallas, TX, June 24, 1951).

American photographer. Nicosia studied Radio, Television and Film at the University of North Texas, Denton, completing his studies in 1974. His early photographic work used a frenetic comic book style, with actors expressively posed in front of bizarre hand painted backdrops, as in Near (Modern) Disaster no. 5 (1983; see 1999 exh. cat., p. 51). Nicosia moved away from such cartoon-style work and began to make more considered, although still staged, portraits such as Danny & Conny (1985; see 1988 exh. cat., p. 54). With his Real Pictures series, Nicosia moved out of contrived studio situations and used actors outdoors, as well as black-and-white film in pursuit of greater realism. Works such as Real Pictures no. 8 (1989; see 1999 exh. cat., p. 55), a dispassionately framed image of a man threatening a clown from his car, showed Nicosia’s interest in a collision of the morbid and the absurd. Nicosia subsequently made works both in the studio, such as ...

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1946, in Carcassonne.

Sculptor, installation artist, draughtsman, illustrator, photographer, film maker.

Conceptual Art.

Patrick Raynaud studied cinema and has produced and directed films.

In 1972 he directed a series of films including one on Robert and another on Sonia Delaunay. He also produced children's books and a series of graphic compositions. From ...

Article

Trevor Fawcett

This article is principally concerned with the mechanical or semi-mechanical reproduction in two dimensions of paintings, sculpture, drawings and the decorative arts in the Western world. See also Book illustration; Copy; Electroplating; Mass production; Periodical §I; Photography §I; and Prints §III.

The validity of reproductions depends on their acceptance as reasonable substitutes for unavailable ‘original’ works of art. (In turn the concept of ‘originals’ presupposes the existence of reproductions and other derivatives.) Unlike the handmade copy or duplicate, reproductions are created in multiple copies, each one theoretically identical, by means of some partly or wholly mechanized process. The closer they resemble their prototype in dimensions, medium, composition, colour and finish, the more they approach the ideal of facsimile. However, the vast majority of reproductions are executed in a medium different from their originals and on a smaller scale, as for example most engravings or photographs after paintings. Until recently, moreover, black-and-white reproductions have far outnumbered those in colour. With works of sculpture and decorative art a further distancing occurs when three-dimensional forms are converted into two-dimensional images. Such flattened versions may nevertheless often be preferred for their cheapness and convenience over solid replicas such as casts and electrotypes....

Article

Swiss, 20th – 21st century, female.

Active in Zurich.

Born 21 June 1962, in Rheintal.

Sculptor, video installation artist, video artist, director, musician, poet. Artists' books.

Pipilotti Rist studied at the Universität für Angewandte Kunst in Vienna, then trained in audiovisual techniques at the school of design in Basel. She won the Premio ...

Article

Czech, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in the USA from 1982; naturalised US citizen.

Born 1949, in Brno.

Illustrator, film maker.

Peter Sís studied film-making and painting at the Prague academy of applied arts and the Royal College of Art, London. He began his career as a film maker, winning a Golden Bear at the ...

Article

Canadian, 20th–21st century, male.

Active in USA 1964–1972.

Born 10 December 1928, in Toronto.

Painter, sculptor, collage artist, lithographer, video installation artist. Artists’ books.

Conceptual Art.

Michael James Snow was a student at the Ontario College of Art in Toronto from 1948 and graduated in 1953. He spent time in Europe in 1954–1955. He also made a name for himself as a jazz musician. He mainly chooses the most ordinary subjects and objects from everyday life, which he empties of their usual significance in order to transmute them by making their place in space and time perceptible. His early works were figurative, interiors and figures. However, from 1961, he particularly exploited the theme of the ...

Article

German, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1959, in Bad Dürkheim.

Performance artist, video artist, photographer. Artists' books.

Tom Stark lives and works in Darmstadt. He produces photographs, videos, performances and artists' books. In 1992 he took part in the exhibition From Bonnard to Baselitz: A Decade of Acquisitions by the Prints Collection 1978-1988...