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Article

Abidine  

Turkish, 20th century, male.

Active in France from 1952.

Born 1913, in Istanbul; died 7 December 1993, in Villejuif (Val-de-Marne).

Painter, draughtsman, illustrator.

Group D.

Abidine began his artistic career in Istanbul when he was still extremely young. At the age of 15 he was producing catoons for the Turkish press. In ...

Article

Armenian, 20th century, male.

Born 1904, in Bursa, Turkey; died 1963.

Painter. Illustrator.

Armenian painter Haroutin (Ariel) Pascal Agemian was born in Turkey and moved to Italy at a young age. He graduated from the Venice Fine Arts Academy in 1926, and he taught painting in Italy and Paris until moving to Brooklyn, New York, in ...

Article

[Khwāja ‛Abd al-Ḥayy]

(fl c. 1374; d Samarkand, 1405).

Illustrator and painter. According to the Safavid chronicler Dust Muhammad, ‛Abd al-Hayy trained under Shams al-Din at Baghdad during the reign of the Jalayirid sultan Uways I (reg 1356–74) and became the leading painter under his son Ahmad (reg 1382–1410), who was also ‛Abd al-Hayy’s pupil. When Timur took Baghdad, ‛Abd al-Hayy was sent to Samarkand, either in 1393 or in 1401, where he spent the rest of his life. He seems to have specialized in monochrome ink drawings: Dust Muhammad recorded that ‛Abd al-Hayy’s pupil, Ahmad Jalayir, contributed a black-and-white drawing to a manuscript of the Abūsa‛īdnāma (‘Book of Abu Sa‛id’), and a number of examples attributed to the late 14th century and preserved in various albums (e.g. Berlin, Staatsbib. Preuss. Kultbes., Orientabt. Diez A. 70–73) bear the notation that they were copied from ‛Abd al-Hayy’s drawings by Muhammad ibn Mahmud Shah Khayyam. In his album (Istanbul, Topkapı Pal. Lib., H. ...

Article

Milo Cleveland Beach and Jonathan M. Bloom

revised by Sheila S. Blair

[(Khwāja) ‛Abd al-Ṣamad; ‛Abd as-Ṣamad; Abdus Ṣamad]

(fl c. 1540–95).

Iranian miniature painter and calligrapher, active also in India. Trained in Safavid Iran, ‛Abd al-Samad migrated to India, where he became director of the Mughal painting workshops under the emperor Akbar (reg 1556–1605). In this key position, he influenced the development of Mughal painting in the second half of the 16th century more than any other artist (see Indian subcontinent §VI 4., (i), (b)).

No inscribed works by ‛Abd al-Samad are known from the period when he worked in Safavid Iran, though attributions have been proposed, such as a depiction of the assassination of Khusraw Parviz from the copy of the Shāhnāma made for Shah Tahmasp I (reg 1524–76). Already a mature painter, he paid homage in 1544 to Akbar’s father, the Mughal emperor Humayun (reg 1530–40; 1555–6), when the exiled ruler was given refuge at the court of the Safavid shah Tahmasp at Tabriz. In ...

Article

Lebanese, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active also active in France.

Born 1962, in Saïda.

Painter, draughtsman, illustrator. Figures, portraits.

This artist is a self-taught book and magazine illustrator who divides his time between Beirut and Paris. He has exhibited drawings and paintings at one-man shows in Beirut (since ...

Article

Lebanese, 20th – 21st century, female.

Active in England.

Born 1947, in Beirut.

Watercolourist, pastellist, draughtswoman, illustrator.

Ida Alamuddine studied art in London from 1967 to 1971, but broke off her studies for a six-year period before resuming in the USA (1981 to 1983) and once more in London (...

Article

Sheila R. Canby

[Mīr Sayyid ‛Alī-i Tabrīzī]

(b Tabriz, c. 1510; d Mecca, after 1572).

Persian painter, active also in India. He was the son of the Safavid-period painter Mir Musavvir. Though Qazi Ahmad, writing in the late 16th century, deemed him cleverer in art than his father, Mir Sayyid ‛Ali reveals paternal influence in his meticulous rendering of ornamental patterns and details. As he was a junior artist at the time of the royal Shāhnāma of c. 1525–35 (dispersed, see Dickson and Welch), his contribution to this was limited. Only two miniatures (fols 135v and 568r; priv. col. and New York, Met., respectively; see 1979–80 exh. cat., nos 20 and 33) are attributed to him, and possibly passages in other works by Sultan Muhammad and Aqa Mirak. By the time of the illustration of the Khamsa (‘Five poems’) of Nizami of 1539–42 (London, BL, Or. MS. 2265), Mir Sayyid ‛Ali was a first-rank Safavid court artist, painting four (or possibly five) miniatures, three (or possibly four) of which were subsequently removed from the manuscript (Cambridge, MA, Sackler Mus., 1958.75 and 1958.76; Edinburgh, Royal Mus. Scotland, ...

Article

Sheila S. Blair

[Muẓaffar ‛Alī ibn Haydar ‛Alī al-Tabrīzī]

(fl late 1520s–70s; d Qazvin, c. 1576).

Persian calligrapher, illustrator, painter and poet. He was a versatile artist who belonged to the second generation working for Tahmasp I (reg 1524–76) at the Safavid court in north-west Iran (see Islamic art, §III, 4(vi)(a)). His career has been reconstructed by Dickson and Welch on the basis of brief notices by Safavid artists and historians, signed calligraphies and ascribed paintings. He studied calligraphy with the master Rustam ‛Ali, and several folios in the album compiled for Bahram Mirza in 1544–5 (Istanbul, Topkapı Pal. Lib., H. 2154) are signed jointly by Rustam ‛Ali for the writing and Muzaffar ‛Ali for the découpage (Arab. qat‛). He was a master of nasta‛lıq script, and two examples in the album prepared for Amir Ghayb Beg in 1564–5 (Istanbul, Topkapı Pal. Lib., H. 2161) are signed by him. In the introduction to this album, Malik Daylami wrote of his skill in calligraphic decoration and gold illumination, and the chronicler Qazi Ahmad reported that he also excelled in gold-flecking, gilding and varnished painting. Muzaffar ‛Ali reportedly studied painting with the renowned master ...

Article

Turkish, 20th century, male.

Painter, draughtsman, illustrator, graphic artist. Posters, book covers.

Yurdaer Altintas founded the Turkish Association of Graphic Designers. He produces paintings that take their inspiration from Turkish folk tales or shadow theatre. Altintas has created numerous posters for the theatre. He painted the illustrations for ...

Article

Lebanese, 20th century, female.

Active in France.

Born 1912; died 2011, in Paris.

Painter, illustrator.

Blanche Ammoun originally trained as a lawyer in her home country, though she practised art from an early age. In 1944 she married French Army officer Andrea Lohéac. They settled in Paris, where Blanche pursued her art full-time and took part in numerous group exhibitions. Though active mainly in France, she continued to exhibit in Lebanon to some acclaim. In a ...

Article

[Ashraf; ‛Alī Ashraf]

(fl c. 1735–80).

Persian painter. Known for a large number of painted and varnished (‘lacquered’) bookbindings, penboxes and mirror-cases (see Islamic art, §viii, 10), ‛Ali Ashraf worked in a small floral style with a characteristic motif of pansies or African violets on a black ground. His style, notable for its richness and delicacy, is derived directly from that of his teacher Muhammad Zaman but is standardized and simplified. His debt to his teacher can be seen in his signature, az ba‛d-i mu ḥammad ‛alī ashraf ast, which can be read as either ‘‛Ali [the Prophet’s son-in-law] is the noblest after Muhammad [the Prophet]’ or ‘‛Ali Ashraf is a follower of Muhammad [Zaman]’. This is the way he signed four mirror-cases with fine bird-and-flower designs (1740–1, Edinburgh, Royal Mus. Scotlandr, 1921–43; 1747, London, V&A, 758–1876; 1751–2, New York, Brooklyn Mus., 88.92; and 1755–6, London, J. Pope-Hennessy priv. col.) and a similar but undated penbox (Berne, Hist. Mus., 21–...

Article

Lebanese, 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 12 August 1943, in Beirut.

Engraver, painter, illustrator.

Assadour Bezdikian left Lebanon at the age of 18; he studied at the Pietro Vannucci academy in Perugia during the summer months of 1962, 1963 and 1964, then from 1964 to 1970...

Article

Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time.

Astrology developed into a scientific branch of learning in ancient Greece, but because of the opposition of the Church Fathers it was transmitted to early medieval Europe in only fragmentary form in technically unsophisticated textbooks and popular divinatory genres. Literary and scientific texts provided more general ideas about the nature and attributes of the planets which were influential on later iconography. The first significant astrological images appear in 11th-century illustrated astronomical texts (e.g. London, BL, Cotton MS. Tiberius BV), which were acquired and produced by monasteries to aid with time-keeping and the construction of the Christian calendar....

Article

Turkish, 20th century, male.

Active also active in France.

Born c. 1872 or 1880, in Constantinople; died 1947.

Painter, illustrator. Figure compositions, landscapes with figures, seascapes.

Orientalism.

Charles Garabed Atamian exhibited at the Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts between 1913 and 1942, and at the Salon des Indépendants in Paris between 1938 and 1945. He often painted scenes from life in the harem....

Article

Iraqi, 20th century, male.

Active in England since 1976.

Born 1939, in Baghdad.

Painter, potter, illustrator. Designs for tapes­tries.

Dhia Azzaoui initially studied archaeology. He then went on to study at Baghdad’s school of fine art. He has lived and worked in London since 1976...

Article

[Muḥammad Bāqir]

(fl 1750s–1760s).

Persian painter. He is known for decorations in the margins of manuscripts, copies of European prints and 17th-century paintings, and wash drawings. His subjects range from floral sprays to nudes, such as the watercolour of a sleeping nymph (1765; Dublin, Chester Beatty Lib., cat. no. 282.VI). He contributed paintings and marginal decorations to a sumptuous album (1758–9; St Petersburg, Hermitage), probably compiled for the Afsharid court historian Mirza Mahdi Khan Astarabadi. Muhammad Baqir’s punning signature there suggests that he was a pupil of ‛Ali Ashraf. Muhammad Baqir signed one of the finest marginal paintings in a smaller but similar album (1764; dispersed; sold Hôtel Drouot, Paris, 23 June 1982) and may have been responsible for all of them, which include rose sprays and copies of Susannah and the Elders. Muhammad Baqir is sometimes said to have continued to work under the Qajar ruler Fath ‛Ali Shah (...

Article

Egyptian, 20th century, female.

Active in Lebanon.

Born 1945, in Alexandria.

Painter, graphic designer, illustrator. Figure compositions, figures.

Mouna Bassili Sehnaoui studied for two years at the American University in Beirut, Lebanon, and completed her higher education at the University of Arizona in Tucson where she was awarded a diploma in graphic art and painting. She also won the first prize at the university's exhibition of students' works in ...

Article

British, 20th century, male.

Active in London.

Born 10 March 1903, in Braintree (Essex); died 21 November 1989, in Saffron Walden (Essex).

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, illustrator, printmaker, graphic designer. Military subjects, rustic scenes, landscapes, seascapes, harbour scenes, architectural views, church interiors. Decorative panels.

Edward Bawden studied at Cambridge School of Art ...

Article

Tunisian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 16 January 1947, in Tunis.

Illustrator, caricaturist, painter.

Belkhamsa Chedli spent two brief periods at the schools of fine art in Tunis and Paris. He works mostly for Tunisian newspapers and magazines. In 1983, he was awarded first prize for his cartoons by the association of Tunisian journalists. As well as his work as a cartoonist, he has also painted acrylics on canvas, works that display considerable care, precision and elegance. The themes of these paintings are taken from the world of fantasy, and are painted in cartoon style....

Article

Algerian, 20th century, male.

Active in France since 1953.

Born 1931, in Mestghanem.

Painter, engraver, illustrator, painter (gouache), watercolourist. Designs for tapestries.

Abdallah Benanteur began his artistic studies at the school of fine art in Oran, completing them at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière in Paris. He settled in Paris in 1953. From 1972 to 1976, he taught in the architecture department of the École des Beaux-Arts and at the École des Arts Décoratifs in Paris....