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A. Gerhardt

Benedictine abbey on the River Enns in Styria, Austria. It was founded in the mid-11th century by Bishop Gebhard from Salzburg, endowed by St Henna von Gurk, Gräfin von Friessach (d 1045), and settled by Benedictine monks from St Peter’s, Salzburg under Abbot Isingrin. The Romanesque minster (consecrated 1074), which was dedicated to St Blaise, was famous for its marble columns and was rebuilt after a fire in 1152; a Gothic choir was added in 1276–86. The present church incorporates Romanesque side doors as well as other fragments. The abbey became an important cultural centre with a renowned scriptorium. Amongst the many famous scholars there was Abbot Engelbert of Admont (reg 1297–1327). From 1121 to the 16th century a convent was attached to the abbey. Under the abbots Mathias Preininger (reg 1615–28) and Urban Weber (reg 1628–59) the whole establishment was transformed in the Baroque style, and the church was rebuilt (...


Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time.

Astrology developed into a scientific branch of learning in ancient Greece, but because of the opposition of the Church Fathers it was transmitted to early medieval Europe in only fragmentary form in technically unsophisticated textbooks and popular divinatory genres. Literary and scientific texts provided more general ideas about the nature and attributes of the planets which were influential on later iconography. The first significant astrological images appear in 11th-century illustrated astronomical texts (e.g. London, BL, Cotton MS. Tiberius BV), which were acquired and produced by monasteries to aid with time-keeping and the construction of the Christian calendar....


British, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1754, in Norwich, baptised 5 June 1754; died 21 or 6 December 1828, in Hatfield, in very reduced circumstances.

Engraver (etching and stippling), illustrator, printmaker, draughtsman. Portraits, architecture, mythology, religious subjects.

The son of John Baldrey the Elder, John Baldrey the Younger entered the Royal Academy School to study engraving in ...



Michael Richter

Monastery in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. Approximately 50 km south of Piacenza in the Apennines, it was founded c. ad 613 through the cooperation of the Lombard king Agilulf (reg 590–615) and the Irish abbot and saint Columbanus (c. 540–615). Its nucleus was an older dilapidated church dedicated to St Peter. Columbanus died on 23 November 615, but his name and renown remained alive in the following centuries. Through cooperation with the Lombard monarchs as well as later the Carolingian kings, Bobbio became a very prominent monastery in Northern Italy. In 628 it was granted the earliest monastic exemption from supervision by the local diocesan, the bishop of Tortona. The community of Bobbio apparently lived according to the Rule of Columbanus as well as the Rule of Basil of Caesarea. The presence of the Rule of St Benedict cannot be documented there before the early 9th century. Bobbio became a known not only as a centre of Irish learning but also as a centre of grammatical as well as computational studies. Its early library also contained Classical texts as well as important palimpsests (a ‘catalogue’ survives from the late 9th century). In the late 9th and early 10th centuries (a period of economic decline) important illuminated manuscripts were produced there. The abbatial church was rebuilt under Abbot Agilulf (...


Gordon Campbell



French organization founded in Poitiers in 1953. The Centre d’études supérieures de civilisation médiévale (CECSM) is affiliated with the Université de Poitiers, the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), and the Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication. The founders, among them historian Edmond-René Labande and art historian René Crozet, began CESCM as a month-long interdisciplinary study of medieval civilization, inviting foreign students to participate. CESCM has since developed into a permanent organization but maintains the international and interdisciplinary focus of its founders.

CESCM continues to hold its formative summer session, known as ‘Les Semaines d’études médiévales’, and invites advanced graduate students of all nationalities. The summer session spans two weeks and includes sessions on a variety of topics, each conducted by a member or affiliate of CESCM. CESCM supports collaborative research groups and regularly holds colloquia attended by the international scholarly community.

Since 1958 CECSM has published ...


Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1890, in Ferrara; died 1972, in Appiano Gentile.

Painter, draughtsman, watercolourist, illustrator. Mythological subjects, historical subjects, figures, portraits, nudes, landscapes, urban landscapes, architectural views. Murals, designs for mosaics, frescoes, church decoration.

Futurism, Novecento Italiano.

School of Milan.

Virgile Funi (known as Achille) studied at the Dosso Dossi Institute in Ferrara, then at the Brera Accademia di Belle Arti, in Milan, from 1906 to 1910, where he was a student of Tallone. In 1912, he founded the 'perifuturist' group ...


Danish, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1848, in Copenhagen; died 1912.

Painter, watercolourist, illustrator. Interiors, landscapes with figures, urban landscapes, architectural views, ruins, interiors, church interiors.

Copenhagen: View of St Mark's in Venice; View of the Villa Borghese in Rome

Copenhagen (Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek): View of the Tomb of A.J. Varstens in Rome...



Sheila S. Blair

[Sayyid Ḥaydar ibn ?Aṣīl al-Din]

(d 1325–6).

Calligrapher. He was one of the six disciples of Yaqut al-Musta‛simi and earned the nickname ‘writer in large characters’ (Pers. kand-navīs), presumably because of his masterful work designing architectural inscriptions in carved stucco. Two superb examples of his work in this medium survive in Iran: a band (1307–8) across the intrados of the north iwan of the mosque in the shrine complex at Natanz, and the mihrab (1310) in the winter prayer hall of the Friday Mosque at Isfahan. He was a renowned teacher whose pupils included such famous calligraphers as ‛Abdallah Sayrafi, and the viziers Taj al-Din ‛Ali Shah and Ghiyath al-Din, the son of Rashid al-Din. His son Muhammad was a calligrapher, too, and signed several calligraphic specimens (e.g. Istanbul, Topkapı Pal. Lib., H. 2160, fol. 29v and H. 2310, fol. 97v).

Qāżī Aḥmad ibn Mīr Munshī: Gulistān-i hunar [Rose-garden of art] (...


Nigel J. Morgan

Former Benedictine abbey in the Weser Valley c. 30 km north of Kassel, Germany. It was founded in 999, and the abbey church of St Peter (mostly destr.) was consecrated in 1011; additions to the church were made in the 12th century, when it was also dedicated to St Modoaldus. The goldsmith Roger was a monk at the abbey during the first half of the 12th century, and Helmarshausen was also a major centre of illuminated manuscript production throughout the 12th century. The earliest manuscripts, three Gospel books (c. 1100–20; Trier, Domschatz, Cods 137–9), have Evangelist portraits in an Ottonian manner deriving from Corvey manuscripts of the late 10th century and from the Echternach school of the 11th century. In MS. 139, the latest of the group, the influence of the work of Roger of Helmarshausen is evident in some head types and fold forms. A fourth Gospel book (...


British, 20th century, male.

Born 1877, in Manchester; died 1930, in Bromborough.

Painter (gouache), watercolourist, draughtsman, illustrator. Local scenes, landscapes, architectural views, church interiors.


Augustus Osborne Lamplough trained at Chester School of Art and taught in Leeds from 1898 to 1899. He travelled and painted extensively in Algeria, Morocco and Egypt. He exhibited in London and throughout Britain, as well as in the USA (notably New York, Philadelphia and Buffalo). Lamplough's early works are cathedral interiors and architectural views of Venice. Following his journey to the Middle East, he painted desert views, the Nile (particularly reflections in the water at sunrise or dusk) and market scenes. His watercolours are characterised by his use of ochre, buff and beige tonalities, evocative of the desert sands and skies. Several of his watercolours have been published as book illustrations: ...


French, 18th century, male.

Born 19 March 1715, in Paris; died 24 March 1759, in St Petersburg, Russia.

Painter, draughtsman, illustrator, engraver (etching). Religious subjects, mythological subjects, architectural views.

Le Lorrain studied under Dumont le Romain. He won first prize in painting in 1739, was approved by the Académie des Beaux-Arts on ...


French, 20th century, male.

Born 29 August 1892, in St-Mars-du-Désert, Brittany; died 1982.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman, lithographer, illustrator. Religious subjects, portraits, interiors, landscapes, architectural views, still-lifes, flowers. Church decoration, frescoes.

Albert Lemasson entered the École des Beaux-Arts, Paris in 1919 and became a pupil of Fernand Cormon training for fresco painting with Paul Baudoin. He travelled in France, Italy and Spain....


I. G. Bango Torviso

[Sp. mozárabe]

Term traditionally used to describe the art of Christians living in the areas of the Iberian peninsula ruled by Muslims in the 10th and 11th centuries. The Castilian word derives from the Arabic musta‛rib (‘Arabized’) and is to be contrasted with Mudéjar, the term used to describe the art of Islamic inspiration produced for non-Muslim patrons in the areas of the Iberian peninsula reconquered by Christians between 1085 and the 16th century. Very few surviving works of art fit this strict definition of Mozarabic art, and it is difficult to characterize them. The only substantial building is the ruined three-aisled basilica at Mesas de Villaverde (Málaga; often identified as ‘Bobastro’), which preserves its rock-cut foundations and walls (see Spain §II 2.). The two illuminated manuscripts surviving from this period are quite different in style. The Biblia Hispalense (Madrid, Bib. N., Cod. Vit. 13–1), copied c. 900 at or near Seville by or for Bishop ...


Alison Stones

French town in the Dordogne that grew up on the site of Roman Vesunna. Roman remains include the arena, temple and villa, the latter now the site of a museum of Roman art designed by Jean Nouvel. Several medieval houses preserve fragments of 13th-century wall paintings. The former medieval cathedral dedicated to St Etienne is located between the temple and arena and preserves several bays of its early 12th-century choir with a flat east end vaulted with domes on pendentives. Similar domes are found at the 12th-century abbey church of St Front, originally outside the walls and since 1669 the cathedral. St Front has a Greek-cross plan like that of the Holy Apostles (destr.) in Constantinople and St Mark’s in Venice. It was restored by Paul Abadie, architect of Sacré-Coeur, Paris, who endowed both buildings with ‘pepper-pot’ turrets. Fragments of early 12th-century sculpture from St Front survive at the Musée du Périgord in Périgueux, some from the tomb of St Fronto described in the mid-12th-century Pilgrims Guide to Santiago de Compostela, where it is claimed that Fronto was sent to Périgueux by St Peter. Other medieval holdings in the museum include the Diptych of Rabastens (Tarn), the founding charter of the Confraternity of the Assumption, containing the names of the founding members beneath scenes of the ...


British, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1769, in London; died 29 May 1843, in London.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman, illustrator. Genre scenes, landscapes, seascapes, church interiors, architectural views.

William Henry Pyne studied under Henry Pars at the Shipley School in The Strand London and went on to exhibit at the Royal Academy in ...


British, 19th century, male.

Born 1801, in Colnbrook (Berkshire); died probably in 1879, in Windsor.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman, illustrator. Genre scenes, interiors with figures, church interiors, architectural views.

Samuel Rayner was first and foremost a watercolorist. He showed his works - primarily architectural compositions - at various exhibitions in London between ...


Robert Melzak

Island on Lake Constance, Germany, and one of the major cultural and monastic Christian centres of the early Middle Ages. The monastery, according to tradition, was founded there in ad 724 by Pirmin, a Franco-Irish (possibly Spanish) monk, to convert the Germans, and benefited from royal patronage in the Carolingian and Ottonian periods, becoming a favoured stopping place between Germany and Italy. Its school, with a famous library (see Carolingian art §IV 3., and Ottonian art §IV 2.), produced such figures as Walafrid Strabo, a court poet and tutor who returned as Abbot (reg 838–49), and Hermann the Lame (1013–54), who wrote on astronomy, music, and history. Three churches at Reichenau preserve important remains from these centuries.

W. Erdmann: Die Reichenau im Bodensee: Geschichte und Kunst (Königstein im Taunus, 1979) J. Herrin: The Formation of Christendom (Princeton, NJ, 1987), pp. 481–7 K. Hublow and J. Krumbholz...


James D’Emilio

Benedictine abbey near Burgos, Spain, noted for its Romanesque cloister. The abbey, documented in ad 919 with a gift from Count Fernán Gonzalez, was restored and reformed during the abbacy of St Dominic of Silos (1041–73). A contemporary manuscript from Silos (Paris, Bib. N., MS. n.a.lat. 2169, fol. 37bis v) records a consecration by Abbot Fortunio in 1088. After difficult years, the abbey enjoyed renewed prosperity under Abbot Juan (reg 1118–42), obtaining papal protection and generous gifts from King Alfonso VII (reg 1126–57). Revenues were allocated for work on the cloister in a budget of 1158. The Romanesque church was razed in the 18th century, but descriptions by abbots Gerónimo de Nebrada (reg 1572–8) and Baltazar Diaz (reg 1729–33, 1749–53, 1765–9), who supervised its demolition, two plans in the abbey archives, and findings from Iñiguez’s excavations of 1931 and 1934 provide a basis for a reconstruction, although the evidence is contradictory. The church was built in several campaigns and stood on two levels on sloping terrain. The lower church terminated in three eastern apses, and the main arcade was supported by large cylindrical piers in the two easternmost bays and compound piers in the two bays lying to the west of the line of an earlier façade. A porch adjoined the north wall. The pavement was raised and steps built over the central and south apses when the upper church was added; this had three apses preceded by deep choir bays, a shallow apse off each transept arm, and compound crossing piers. Comparisons with Jaca Cathedral and S Isidoro, León, show that the consecration of ...


French, 17th century, male.

Active in Rheimsc.1628.

Born in Rheims.

Engraver, draughtsman, copyist. Religious subjects, genre scenes, scenes with figures, landscapes, architectural views.

Nicolas de Son is a little-known artist whose work has yet to be researched. He etched and engraved with the burin. He engraved copies of etchings by Jacques Callot.He featured in the thematic collective exhibition ...