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Paul Spencer-Longhurst

(b Rome, May 4, 1770; d Paris, Jan 11, 1837).

French painter and illustrator.

He spent most of his childhood in Rome. His talent as an artist revealed itself early and during this period he acquired a love of Italian painting and music, which he never lost. In 1782 his family returned to Paris, where, through the connections of his father’s employer Louis-Auguste le Tonnelier, Baron de Breteuil, Minister of the King’s Household, Gérard was admitted to the Pension du Roi, a small teaching establishment for young artists which had been founded by the Marquis de Marigny. After 18 months he entered the studio of the sculptor Augustin Pajou, where he remained for two years, before transferring to that of the painter Nicolas-Guy Brenet. He became a pupil of David in 1786 and quickly found special favour with his master.

In 1789 Gérard competed for the Prix de Rome and his entry, Joseph Revealing himself to his Brethren (Angers, Mus. B.-A.), was placed second; the winner was Girodet. He did not submit in ...

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Hans Joachim Neidhardt

(b Karlsruhe, Jan 22, 1773; d Dresden, July 14, 1810).

German painter and draughtsman. His training began with an apprenticeship in bookbinding in Pforzheim. From 1792 Kaaz trained as an engraver and miniature painter with Moise Perret-Gentil (1744–1815) in La Chaux de Fonds, Switzerland, and he then studied at the Kunstakademie in Stuttgart. In 1796 he went to Dresden, where from 1797 he attended the Kunstakademie, being influenced particularly by his teacher Johann Christian Klengel and by the landscape painter Jacob Wilhelm Mechau (1745–1808). These two painters recommended that Kaaz study the paintings of Jacob Ruisdael and Claude Lorrain in the Dresden Gemäldegalerie, and these works had a lasting influence on Kaaz’s landscape style. This may be seen in the earliest of his few surviving paintings, for example the Landscape with Waterfall (1800; Dresden, Gemäldegal. Neue Meister). Kaaz’s work from this time is marked by wide orderly spaces and an arcadian harmony. In Dresden he benefited from the patronage of Baroness ...