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Article

Nelly Perazzo

(b Torroella de Montgri, Catalonia, March 3, 1911; d Buenos Aires, Oct 8, 1966).

Argentine painter, printmaker, illustrator, sculptor and stage designer of Spanish Catalan birth. He arrived in Buenos Aires in 1913. Although his uncle, José Planas Casas (b Catalonia, 1900; d Argentina, 1960), taught him the rudiments of art, he was basically self-taught and began to exhibit his work in 1934. Synthesizing ideas from Zen philosophy, psychoanalysis and the theories on cosmic energy espoused by the Austrian psychologist Wilhelm Reich with his interests in automatism, poetry and painting, he found a creative sense of direction from an early age. He applied his methods not only to paintings but to stage designs, illustrations, collages, prints, polychrome sculptures and boxlike constructions; as a painter he worked both in tempera and in oil, and he also produced 72 murals.

In 1936 Batlle Planas inaugurated a Surrealist phase with a series entitled Paranoiac X-rays, followed by another group of pictures, Tibetan Series, populated by spectral figures related to works by Yves Tanguy. Between ...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1913, in Milan; died 1993.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, engraver, sculptor, illustrator. Figures, landscapes, still-lifes, animals. Stage sets.

Clerici was a keen reader of the Surrealist review Le Minotaure in his youth, and this strongly influenced his later work.

From the outset of his career, he was active in creating stage sets for opera, ballet and the theatre, at the Fenice in Venice, the Rome opera house and other venues, for the works of Monteverdi, Purcell, Lulli, Goldoni and Stravinsky. He also worked as a book illustrator. In his more personal work, he first gained a reputation as a sculptor. After ...

Article

American, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active also active in France.

Born 1957, in Concord (New Hampshire), United States.

Painter, sculptor, collage artist, pastellist, draughtsman, engraver, screen printer, illustrator. Stage sets.

Neo-Expressionism, Citationism.

George Condo is an American artist who lived in Paris before moving to New York in the early 1980s. There, he met Andy Warhol, Julian Schnabel, Jean-Michel Basquiat, and Keith Haring, and he worked with Beat Generation authors William S. Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg. In 1999 he received an award from the American Academy of Arts and Letters....

Article

Czech, 20th century, female.

Active from 1946 active in, and from 1957 naturalised in France.

Born 26 December 1908, in Prague.

Painter, engraver, illustrator, sculptor, art critic. Stage sets.

Zdenka Datheil made her debut in Prague, creating about 30 sets for the national theatres of Prague, Brno, Bratislava and Zagreb. She arrived in Paris in ...

Article

Jean E. Feinberg

(b Cincinnati, OH, June 6, 1935).

American painter, sculptor, printmaker, illustrator, performance artist, stage designer and poet. He studied art at the Cincinnati Arts Academy (1951–3) and later at the Boston Museum School and Ohio University (1954–7). In 1957 he married Nancy Minto and the following year they moved to New York. Dine’s first involvement with the art world was in his Happenings of 1959–60. These historic theatrical events, for example The Smiling Workman (performed at the Judson Gallery, New York, 1959), took place in chaotic, makeshift environments built by the artist–performer. During the same period he created his first assemblages, which incorporated found materials. Simultaneously he developed the method by which he produced his best known work—paintings, drawings, prints and sculptures that depict and expressively interpret common images and objects.

Clothing and domestic objects featured prominently in Dine’s paintings of the 1960s, with a range of favoured motifs including ties, shoes and bathroom items such as basins, showers and toothbrushes (e.g. ...

Article

Austrian, 20th century, male.

Born 1930, in Vienna.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver, illustrator, sculptor, collage artist, decorative designer. Scenes with figures, figures. Stage sets.

Groups: Hundsgruppe (Dog’s group), Phantastischer Realismus group.

Ernst Fuchs enrolled at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna in 1945. From 1946 to 1950, he was a pupil of Gütersloh, whom Salvador Dalí considered the most important painter of his time (after himself). In around 1950, he was one of the founders of the Viennese ...

Article

S. Kontha

(b Budapest, April 17, 1904; d Budapest, Jan 26, 1986).

Hungarian painter, illustrator, mosaicist, tapestry designer, stage designer, poster designer, printmaker, sculptor, teacher and administrator. From 1922 to 1929 he studied at the Hungarian Academy of Fine Arts (Magyar Kepzőmüvészeti Főiskolá) in Budapest under Gyula Rudnay (1878–1957) and János Vaszary (1867–1939). In the mid-1920s he became acquainted with Béla Uitz’s General Ludd series (1923; Budapest, N.G.) and in Venice he saw the work of such Russian avant-garde artists as Rodchenko and El Lissitzky and such Italian Futurists as Severini. In 1926 in Paris he studied the works of Léger, Braque, Picasso and others in the collection of Léonce Rosenberg. He was also influenced by the art of Brancusi and Joseph Csáky, as well as André Breton’s Manifeste du surréalisme (Paris, 1924). From the outset, Hincz’s work revealed a number of different objectives. Although he experimented with abstraction, the reference to the figure is always present in one form or another. His profound interest in humanity and its social interaction was based on, and motivated by, this interest in the figure. His early paintings are expressionist in mood and are composed of flattened forms in a shallow space in a manner reminiscent of Cubo–Futurist art. Elements of Purism and Surrealism are also present. After World War II he became increasingly preoccupied with realism, political agitprop art and the problems inherent in creating new symbols; a study trip to Korea, China and Vietnam in ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 15 May 1930, in Allendale (South Carolina) or Augusta (Georgia).

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman, printmaker, mixed media, costume and set designer, illustrator. Encaustic.

Neo-Dadaism, Pop Art.

Jasper Johns grew up in South Carolina. He attended courses in art and painting at the University of South Carolina and, in 1948, enrolled in a commercial art school for two semesters in New York City. He served in the US Army for two years during the Korean War but was able to resume his studies at City College in New York in 1953, thanks to the GI Bill. It was at this time that he met his lifelong friend Robert Rauschenberg, the composer John Cage, and the dancer Merce Cunningham. He acted as artistic adviser for Cage and Cunningham’s dance company until 1972, collaborating with painters such as Robert Morris, Frank Stella, Bruce Nauman, and Andy Warhol. He lives and works in New York State and St Martin in the French West Indies. He has been a member of the New York Academy of Arts and Letters since 1988....

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Active in Paris.

Born 18 February 1885, in Paris; died 1954, in Paris.

Painter (gouache), collage artist, sculptor, engraver, draughtsman, illustrator. Stage sets.

Henri Laurens had barely left school when he started sculpting first as an apprentice with an interior designer, then as a carver-setter whilst attending night school and teaching himself modelling. In 1910 he stayed briefly at that sanctuary for down-and-out artists, La Ruche, where Archipenko and Léger were also staying. Until 1911 and the advent of Cubism, he worked in total isolation. Then he met Braque, with whom he formed a lasting friendship, as well as Fernand Léger and Juan Gris, though he did not join their group. Only after World War II would his work meet with a degree of recognition....

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 18 May 1940, in Alençon.

Painter, collage artist, lithographer, draughtsman, illustrator, sculptor, writer. Stage sets.

Alain Le Yaouanc spent time in the USA in 1956 where he executed his first paintings. In 1957 he held his first exhibitions in the New Britain Museum, Mattatuck Museum, Waterbury and Connecticut. In ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 4 January 1896, in Balagny (Oise); died 28 October 1987, in Paris.

Painter (including gouache), draughtsman, sculptor, engraver, illustrator. Stage sets.

Paris Surrealist group.

André Masson came from the region of Compiègne, Beauvais and Senlis. His father sold wallpaper. He lived in Balagny until the age of eight. Following a short stay in Lille his father's work took the family to Brussels, where he attended school until the age of 12. He then became an apprentice, working in the afternoons as a draughtsman in an embroidery studio and studying at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in the mornings and evenings....

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1931, in Nice; died 3 June 2005.

Draughtsman, painter (gouache), sculptor, engraver, poster artist, illustrator, designer. Religious subjects, figures, portraits. Postage stamps.

Raymond Moretti lived and worked in Courbevoie. After producing strictly figurative painting he undertook, around 1970, an enormous construction which he showed mainly in Paris in ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 9 April 1932, in Caen.

Painter, watercolourist, engraver, lithographer, illustrator, sculptor. Scenes with figures, landscapes. Murals, church decoration, stage costumes and sets.

Jacques Pasquier built up an entomological collection from 1946 to 1956, while also drawing comic strips. He started oil painting in ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 22 June 1923, in Flamicourt.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, draughtsman, sculptor, lithographer, illustrator. Designs for tapestries, designs for mosaics, designs for stained glass, stage sets.

Les Mains Èblouies.

Bernard Maurice Quentin arrived in Paris around 1940, where he studied painting, sculpture and architecture at the École des Arts Decoratifs and the École des Beaux-Arts. After World War II, during which he took part in the resistance, he became acquainted with Picasso through his visits to the Maison de la Pensée Francaise (House of French Thought) and his links with the Communist Party. From 1946, he was a regular figure in St-Germain-des-Prés, mingling with philosophers, poets, writers, painters and sculptors, comedians and musicians of existentialist, surrealist or other persuasion, which constituted at that time the core of Parisian intelligentsia, and becoming friends with Pierre Dmitrienko, Serge Rezvani and François Arnal....

Article

Spanish, 20th century, male.

Born 2 February 1923, in Barcelona.

Painter, collage artist, sculptor, engraver, lithographer, illustrator, poet. Stage sets, designs for stained glass.

Albert Ràfols-Casamada learned drawing with his father, the painter Albert Ràfols y Culleres, then from 1942-1945 he studied architecture at the University of Barcelona, at the same time attending the Tarrega art school. He was self-taught as a painter and started to paint in ...

Article

French, 20th century, female.

Born 29 October 1930, in Neuilly-sur-Seine; died 22 May 2002, in San Diego (California).

Sculptor, painter (including gouache), watercolourist, collage artist, engraver, draughtswoman, performance artist. Figures. Stage sets, artists’ books, designs (jewels/objets d’art).

Nouvelle Figuration.

Nouveaux Réalistes group.

Niki de Saint-Phalle was educated at the Sacred Heart Convent in New York, where she lived from 1933 to 1951. In 1952 she went to live in Paris with her husband, Harry Matthews, and travelled in Europe. She was a self-taught painter who painted her first canvases in 1953 and then turned to sculpture. In 1960 she met Jean Tinguely, whose companion she became. In the same year Pierre Restany founded the Nouveaux Réalistes group, and Niki de Saint-Phalle joined it in 1961....

Article

Polish, 20th century, male.

Active from 1945 in France.

Born 14 June 1927, in Teschen.

Painter (including gouache), sculptor (bronze), engraver, lithographer, illustrator. Figures, scenes with figures, architectural views, flowers. Stage sets.

Spitzer is a Polish painter of Jewish origin, who was marked by World War II. He moved to Paris and studied at the École des Beaux-Arts. His work evokes the horrors of escape, exile and massacre. Deliberately Expressionist, he uses thick textures, a violent graphic style, and his painting often takes on tones of derisive farce. Spitzer is also an illustrator. His works include: ...

Article

Canadian, 20th century, male.

Born 13 June 1924, in Toronto (Ontario); died 1990.

Painter, collage artist, draughtsman, sculptor, illustrator, engraver, decorative designer. Murals, stage costumes and sets.

Op Art.

Painters Eleven.

Harold Barling Town studied at the Western Technical Institute and the Ontario College of Art in Toronto ...

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, female.

Born 1956, in Paris.

Painter, pastellist, engraver, draughtswoman, sculptor, illustrator. Stage sets, artists' books.

Mâkhi Xenakis is the daughter of Iannis Xenakis, the composer. After completing architectural studies, she turned to the design of stage scenery. When visiting New York in ...

Article

Russian, 20th century, male.

Active in France since 1980.

Born 15 October 1935, in Minsk (now in Belarus).

Painter, print artist, draughtsman, sculptor. Figures, landscapes. Stage and costume designs, book illustrations.

Boris Zaborov studied at the Minsk school of fine arts (1940-1954), the Repin Institute in Leningrad (now St Petersburg) (...