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Article

German, 16th century, male.

Active between 1512 and 1561.

Painter, engraver (wood), illustrator. Religious subjects.

Erhard Altdorfer is believed to have been the brother of Albrecht Altdorfer. The latter mentions him in his will, dated 12 February 1538, as a citizen of Schwerin. Erhard was a painter to the court of Prince Henry the Peaceful and accompanied him to a royal wedding in Wittenburg. This occasion is believed to have given him the opportunity to meet Lucas Cranach, whose influence can be detected in some of his works. In 1516 he painted an altarpiece in Sternberg, Germany, which has been lost. In a 1552 letter to the young Duke John-Albert of Mecklenburg, he gives the impression of having been an architect along with his brother. Erhard Altdorfer is known today for his wood engravings, some of which are signed with a monogram formed by an intertwining of the letters ...

Article

German, 15th century, male.

Born c. 1435; died 1504.

Painter, miniaturist, illuminator, writer, printer. Religious subjects.

School of Alsace.

Hans Baemler's name appears for the first time in 1453. He established himself in Augsburg as a printer. His name appears on two miniatures, a Crucifixion...

Article

Italian, 15th – 16th century, male.

Painter, engraver, illustrator. Religious subjects.

Florentine School.

Bartolommeo di Giovanni was a Florentine painter, active from 1483 to 1511. It has been possible to establish firm authorship of only one of his works: in an archive record of a contract dated ...

Article

German, 16th century, male.

Born c. 1480, in Augsburg; died 1542, in Augsburg.

Painter, engraver, illuminator, illustrator. Religious subjects.

Augsburg School.

Both alone and in collaboration with his son, Leonhard Beck made numerous illuminations and woodcuts. He is believed to have assisted Holbein the Elder. Received as a master in ...

Article

Dutch, 16th century, male.

Born 16 December 1534, in Mechelen; died 20 November 1593, in Amsterdam.

Painter (gouache), miniaturist, watercolourist, illuminator, engraver, draughtsman. Religious subjects, mythological subjects, portraits, village scenes, landscapes with figures.

Amsterdam School.

The son of Simon Bol and pupil of his father's brothers, Jean and Jacques Bol, Hans Bol worked initially in Heidelberg and then in Mons. On 10 February 1560, he was admitted to the guild in Mechelen. In 1572, after the sack of Mechelen, he left the town and, quite destitute, journeyed to Antwerp. Here he made the acquaintance of an art lover, Anton Couvreur, who became his patron. In 1574, he was admitted into the Antwerp painters' guild and, on 16 September of the same year, he was granted citizenship. Concerned that other artists were copying his work, he abandoned painting in egg tempera and started to produce small pictures in oil and gouache. In 1584, the war obliged him to flee Antwerp for Bergen-op-Zoom, Holland, where he remained until 1586. He then set up in Amsterdam, having first passed through Dordrecht and Delft. He married a widow whose son, Frans Boch, became his pupil. Other pupils were Jacquaes Savary of Courtrai and Pierre de Kleerck of Antwerp. The usual date given for his death, 1593, seems doubtful because of a miniature on parchment in existence in Berlin in 1883 depicting an ...

Article

German, 16th century, male.

Born between 1475 and 1480, in Augsburg; died 1537, in Augsburg.

Painter, engraver, draughtsman, illustrator. History painting, religious subjects, allegorical subjects, battles, genre scenes, hunting scenes. Murals, designs for stained glass.

Danube School (Augsburg).

Jörg Breu the Elder is mentioned from 1501...

Article

Dutch, 16th century, male.

Born between 1470 and 1477, in Oostsanen; died before 18 October 1533, in Amsterdam.

Painter, copyist, engraver, draughtsman. Religious subjects, portraits.

Amsterdam School.

Jacob Cornelisz. van Oostsanen was the brother of Cornelis I Buys and the father of Dirck Jacobsz. or Jacobszoon, both of whom were painters. He trained in Haarlem, then moved in about 1500 to Amsterdam, where he was the master of Jan van Scoreel from 1512 to 1517....

Article

French, 16th century, male.

Born c. 1522, probably in Sens (Yonne); died c. 1594, in Paris.

Painter, sculptor, engraver, draughtsman, illustrator. History painting, religious subjects, mythological subjects.

Fontainebleau School.

Jean Cousin the Younger was a pupil of his father Jean Cousin the Elder and worked for most of his life in Sens....

Article

German, 15th century, male.

Born c. 1432, in Nuremberg.

Illuminator, engraver (wood).

He made engravings of religious subjects . The imperial library in Vienna possesses a richly illuminated book of hours painted by this artist and known as the Book of Hours of Duke William IV of Bavaria...

Article

Flemish, 16th century, male.

Born c. 1519, in Antwerp; died 1584, in Antwerp.

Painter, engraver, illustrator. Religious subjects, genre scenes.

Antwerp School, Flemish School.

Pieter Huys was the brother of the engraver Franz Huys. He qualified as a master in Antwerp in 1545. As an engraver, he worked with Plantin and illustrated Valverda's ...

Article

German, 14th – 15th century, male.

Engraver (?), copyist.

A German imitator of Martin Schongauer; his most important work is the Christ in the Wilderness with Ministering Angels.

2003, Albrecht Dürer and German Engraving (Albrecht Dürer et la Gravure Allemande), Musée Condé, Château de Chantilly...

Article

German, 15th century, male.

Active in Westphalia from 1460 to 1467.

Engraver, copyist. Religious subjects, mythological subjects.

This artist, some 58 of whose prints are known, seems to have been chiefly a copyist concentrating particularly on the work of Master E. S. His works include a ...

Article

German, 16th century, male.

Active in Nuremberg 1563-1583.

Painter, engraver (etching/burin).

Conrad Saldoerffer engraved religious subjects and illustrations for travel books.

Article

German, 15th – 16th century, male.

Born c. 1480, in Nuremberg; died between 1538 and 1540, in Nördlingen, or in Nuremberg according to some sources.

Painter, engraver, draughtsman, illustrator. Religious subjects, battles, portraits.

Hans Léonard Schäuffelin was a pupil of Albrecht Dürer and, until 1505, one of his assistants. His first known work is the painting of the retable of Ober-Sankt-Veit, the design of which was by Dürer. Around 1509 he was in the Tyrol and Augsburg. In 1515 he became a burgher of Nördlingen, the result of which seems to have been that the magistrates of his native town barred him from going back there....

Article

Dutch, 16th century, male.

Engraver.

Hendrik van Schoel had a printing works and bookshop in Rome. His engravings are mainly of religious subjects taken from the Italian masters.

Article

German, 16th century, male.

Born 1514, in Nuremberg; died 1 August 1562, in Nuremberg.

Illuminator, painter, draughtsman, engraver (burin/etching/wood/copper). Religious subjects, mythological subjects, portraits, hunting scenes, animals. Ornaments.

Nuremberg School.

Virgil Solis, the father of Andreas and Hans, left a large number of engravings. It is known that he was also a remarkable illuminator, but little of his work in this genre has survived. Nagler mentions a Frankfurt Bible of 1561 that contains a portrait....

Article

Anne-Françoise Leurquin

Manual for religious and moral instruction commissioned by Philip III, King of France (reg 1270–85), from his confessor, the Dominican Frère Laurent. The work was finished in 1279–80 and was a literary success. Over 100 manuscript copies have survived, with printed editions appearing in the 15th century, and translations were made into English, Castilian, Catalan, Italian, Dutch and Occitan.

Although the presentation copy is lost, 7 manuscripts have a complete cycle of 15 full-page images and another 20 have selected images. The scenes include representations of the Ten Commandments, the Credo, the Pater noster, the Apocalyptic beast, the Last Judgement and personifications of the virtues and vices paired with moralizing scenes taken mainly from the Old Testament. The images, like the text, are extremely didactic. Nearly all the fully illuminated manuscripts were made for the royal entourage at the turn of the 14th century, often by exceptional artists. Two books were made for the royal family in ...

Article

Judith K. Golden

Anonymous collection of in-depth typologies, based on the idea that every event in the New Testament was presaged by an event in the Old Testament ( see Typological cycles ). The Speculum humanae salvationis appeared first in manuscript form, then as Block-book s and later as incunabula. Chief among possible sources for the text is Ludolphus of Saxony (c. 1300–77), with Conradus of Altzheim, Vincent of Beauvais, Henricus Suso and Nicholas of Lyra among others also suggested authors. Like copies of the earlier Biblia pauperum, tituli and captions identify events and figures, however the Speculum humanae salvationis augments these pictures with a text that explains the illustrations. Between the early 14th century and the end of the 15th, several hundred copies, nearly all illustrated, were produced and translated from the original Latin into German, French, English, Dutch and Czech.

Typically the manuscripts include a Prologue and Prohemium, of text only; followed by forty-two chapters with four miniatures atop four text columns each of twenty-five lines; closing with three chapters with eight miniatures devoted to the Seven Stations of the Passion, the Seven Sorrows and the Seven Joys of Mary, these last three chapters not being typological. Some manuscripts omit opening texts or the final three chapters. Each opening provides a meditative, typological diptych of four images and clarifying text, for example Christ and the Last Supper as the first image, followed by Moses and the Miracle of Manna; Moses and Passover; Abraham blessed by Melchisedek. The first image contains gospel citations; the last three have captions indicating their relationship to the first....

Article

Swiss, 16th century, male.

Born 17 April 1539, in Schaffhausen; died 4 January 1584, in Strasbourg.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver (wood), illustrator. Historical subjects, religious subjects, genre scenes, portraits, animals. Designs for stained glass, murals, armorials.

Strasbourg School.

Tobias Stimmer is the most famous of the Swiss painters who worked in the wake of Holbein. He is thought to have been a pupil of Hans Asper at Zurich, and certainly came under the influence of Italian painting when working in Italy, copying Titian and Raphael. Active in Schaffhausen between 1567 and 1570, he painted the façade of the Haus zum Ritter there. In 1574, he was in Strasbourg, where he painted the decoration for the astronomical clock. Between 1578 and 1584 he painted important paintings for Baden-Baden Castle, which have now disappeared. We also know that he drew up designs for windows. He supplied engravings to the various printers in Strasbourg of religious subjects and genre scenes, as well as title-pages and illustrations for books. His extant portraits, such as those in the Kunstmuseum in Basel, show great flexibility in his draughtsmanship, and we know that Rubens admired them. The portraits show a remarkable balance between simplicity of pose and natural refinement....

Article

French, 16th century, male.

Born in Neufchâteau (Vosges).

Engraver, goldsmith.

Active between 1503 and 1533, Jacquemin Woeiriot made engravings to illustrate Books of Hours and scientific works as well as engravings of religious subjects. He was the father of Claude Woeiriot.