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Article

Alan Crawford

Informal movement in architecture and the decorative arts that championed the unity of the arts, the experience of the individual craftsman, and the qualities of materials and construction in the work itself.

The Arts and Crafts Movement developed in the second half of the 19th century and lasted well into the 20th, drawing its support from progressive artists, architects and designers, philanthropists, amateurs, and middle-class women seeking work in the home. They set up small workshops apart from the world of industry, revived old techniques, and revered the humble household objects of pre-industrial times. The movement was strongest in the industrializing countries of northern Europe and in the USA, and it can best be understood as an unfocused reaction against industrialization. Although quixotic in its anti-industrialism, it was not unique; indeed it was only one among several late 19th-century reform movements, such as the Garden City movement, vegetarianism, and folksong revivals, that set the Romantic values of nature and folk culture against the artificiality of modern life....

Article

American, 19th century, male.

Born 8 July 1845, in Boston (Massachusetts).

Painter, illustrator, decorative designer.

James Henry Blake was a pupil of Rimnier and Hollingsworth in New York. He specialised in scientific subjects, but also painted a number of landscapes and taught art.

Article

American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 25 March 1867, in Bear Lake or Ovid (Idaho), to Danish parents; died 6 March 1941, in Chicago.

Sculptor, painter, illustrator, decorative designer. Figures, portraits, historical subjects.

Gutzon Borglum, brother of Solon Borglum, was born to a Mormon father with two wives, and he lost contact with his mother when his father left the religion and decided to conform to society's norms for marriage by abandoning her. Borglum studied at St Mary's Academy, Kansas City, in ...

Article

American (?), 19th – 20th century, female.

Died 1948.

Painter, illustrator, decorative designer. Genre scenes, urban landscapes.

Harriette Bowdoin was active in New York around 1909-1910.

New York, 1 June 1983: Street Scene, New York (c. 1915, oil on canvas, 27 × 22 ins/68.5 × 55.7 cm) ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Boston, MA, July 10, 1868; d La Mesa, CA, Jan 25, 1962).

American book-illustrator and designer of posters, typefaces and furniture. In 1893 Bradley began designing for Vogue magazine. He subsequently worked for Ladies’ Home Journal, and in 1901–2 published an influential series of eight articles on ‘The Bradley House’; the designs in these articles (and another three in 1905) seem not to have been implemented, but they nonetheless exerted a seminal influence on public taste and on subsequent furniture design; his designs for pianos were used by Chickering & Sons of Boston. Bradley also designed two series of plates for Royal Doulton: ‘Golfers’ (...

Article

American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1848, in Berlin (Connecticut); died 1922, in Farmington (Connecticut).

Painter, decorative designer, illustrator.

Robert Brandegee studied under Jacqueson de la Chereuse in Paris. In 1907, he became an associate member of the National Academy of Design, New York. Brandegee was awarded a medal in 1901....

Article

American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1869, in Malden (Massachusetts).

Painter, engraver, illustrator, decorative designer.

Harold Brown studied at the Massachusetts Art School, the Cowes Art School in Boston and under Jean Paul Laurens and Gérôme in Paris. He was awarded a bronze medal at the Pan American Exhibition in Buffalo in ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 25 March 1876, in Chicago; died 23 March 1949, in Pasadena.

Painter, illustrator, decorative designer. Landscapes, interiors, cityscapes.

Alson Skinner Clark studied at the Art Institute of Chicago and under William Merritt Chase in New York. In 1898 he travelled to Paris where he furthered his education under Whistler, Mucha, Luc Olivier Merson, Lucien Simon and Cottet. He travelled in France, Holland and Belgium before returning to America where he established a studio in Watertown, New York, in ...

Article

American, 19th century, female.

Active in Los Angeles.

Born 19th century, in Byron (New York).

Painter, decorative designer, illustrator.

Helen E. Coan was a pupil of the Art Students League, New York. She was also a teacher.

Article

Merrill Halkerston

(b Portland, ME, March 4, 1832; d New York, March 26, 1920).

American painter, interior designer and writer. Colman grew up in New York, where his father, Samuel Colman, ran a successful publishing business. The family bookstore on Broadway, a popular meeting place for artists, offered Colman early introductions to such Hudson River school painters as Asher B(rown) Durand, with whom he is said to have studied briefly around 1850. Having won early recognition for his paintings of popular Hudson River school locations (see Storm King on the Hudson), he was elected an Associate of the National Academy of Design in New York in 1854. Most of Colman’s landscapes of the 1850s, for example Meadows and Wildflowers at Conway (1856; Poughkeepsie, NY, Vassar Coll., Frances Lehman Loeb A. Cent.), reveal the influence of the Hudson River school. An avid traveller, he embarked on his first European tour in 1860, visiting France, Italy, Switzerland and the more exotic locales of southern Spain and Morocco. His reputation was secured in the 1860s by his numerous paintings of romantic Spanish sites, notably the large ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1 June 1889, in Asheville (North Carolina); died 1974.

Painter, engraver, decorative designer, illustrator.

James Henry Daugherty studied at the Corcoran School of Art, the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and the Philadelphia School of Fine Arts, and was also a pupil of F. Brangwyn. He painted murals for Stamford High School, Connecticut, and a theatre in Cleveland, Ohio. Most of his work as an illustrator was for publications about the history of the USA....

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Born in Storm Lake (Iowa).

Painter, engraver, decorative designer, illustrator.

Article

Marcus Whiffen

Late 19th-century style of American architecture and furniture. It owed its name to the furniture designs of Charles Locke Eastlake (see Eastlake family, §3), which became widely known because of his book Hints on Household Taste in Furniture, Upholstery and Other Details, first published in London in 1868 and in Boston, MA, in 1872. The book was an immediate success in the USA, and six more American editions appeared in the next eleven years. In the preface to the fourth English edition (1878), Eastlake wrote of his dismay at finding ‘American tradesmen continually advertising what they are pleased to call “Eastlake” furniture …for the taste of which I should be very sorry to be considered responsible’. Eastlake-style furniture of the 1870s by such firms as Mason & Hamlin was decorated profusely with heavily carved Gothic ornament, whereas Eastlake’s own furniture had decoration that was simpler and more sparingly applied to emphasize function....

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1719; d 1775).

American cabinetmaker whose workshop was in Charleston, SC. His account book (1768–75) is an important document in the history of 18th-century American furniture. His furniture is signed with a diamond and figure eight, and is often decorated with a fretwork pattern of circular or oval shapes.

S. A. Humphrey...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 10 December 1874, in Fort Wayne (Indiana); died 15 April 1960, in Falls Village.

Painter, engraver, illustrator. Wall decorations, stage sets, posters.

Charles Buckles Falls was a member of the Society of Illustrators and the National Society of Mural Painters and was awarded a number of distinctions....

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 17 July 1871, in New York; died 31 July 1956, in New York.

Painter, watercolourist, engraver, illustrator, decorative designer.

Novembergruppe, Die Blauen Vier.

Lyonel Feininger was born of German immigrant parents. He initially studied music and gave violin recitals at the age of twelve. He studied composition and in 1887 went to Hamburg to continue his musical training. He also took an interest in decoration and entered the Hamburg school of decorative arts and then, until 1891, studied painting at the Berlin academy together with Hancke and Waldemar Freidrich. In 1892-1893 he spent some months in Paris, where he worked at the Académie Colarossi for six months. He went back to Berlin and from 1893 to 1906 contributed cartoons and satirical drawings to ...

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Born 16 November 1885, in Ohio.

Painter, illustrator, decorative designer. Wall decorations.

A member of the Southern States Art League, Marie Haines received first prize for portaiture at the Exhibition of Southern Artists in Atlanta in 1917. She specialised in murals, of which she painted a great many....

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 2 October 1882, in Philadelphia; died 1959, in Wynnewood (Pennsylvania).

Painter, watercolourist, decorative designer, illustrator. Murals.

George Harding studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia. After travelling round the world, he made murals, most of which depict exotic ports, such as ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 30 May 1885, in Crawford County (Pennsylvania); died 1956, in Philadelphia.

Painter, illustrator, decorative designer.

Paul Honoré trained at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia. He was a member of the National Art Club in New York, and was awarded various prizes. He executed murals in Michigan....

Article

Kari Horowicz

(b Budapest, July 13, 1896; d Warwick, NY, May 26, 1981).

Hungarian illustrator and designer, active also in the USA. Karasz studied at the Royal School of Arts and Crafts in Budapest. Her prolific career encompassed a wide range of media, including illustration and designs for textiles, ceramics, silver, furniture, interior and wallpaper, at all of which she excelled and won awards. Her work was inspired by European design, particularly work by artists at the Wiener Werkstättte. In 1913 she moved to the USA, where she taught at the Modern Art School in Greenwich Village, New York. She quickly became involved in the artistic life of Greenwich Village and provided numerous illustrations for a variety of arts and literature publications including Modern Art Collector, Bruno’s Weekly and Playboy: A Portfolio of Art and Satire. Later, in the 1920s, Karasz’s work was included within or as cover art for The Liberator, The Masses, Harper’s Bazaar, Town and Country and Vanity Fair. Karasz is most famous for her work at ...