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Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1900, in Marciana Marina (Livorno); died 1971, in Milan.

Painter, ceramicist, illustrator, scenographer, writer. Stage costumes.

Futurism.

Giovanni Acquaviva studied philosophy and law at the University of Pisa, while devoting himself to illustration at the same time. He founded the Futurist group ...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 2 December 1899, in Albisola; died May 1971, in Albisola.

Ceramicist, draughtsman, painter, sculptor, screen printer, photographer. Artists' books.

Futurism.

Tullio d'Albisola studied with his father Giuseppe, a master potter, then with Gaetano Ballardini at the international university pottery class in Faenza, which he entered in ...

Article

Michèle Lavallée

[Fr.: ‘new art’]

Decorative style of the late 19th century and the early 20th that flourished principally in Europe and the USA. Although it influenced painting and sculpture, its chief manifestations were in architecture and the decorative and graphic arts, the aspects on which this survey concentrates. It is characterized by sinuous, asymmetrical lines based on organic forms; in a broader sense it encompasses the geometrical and more abstract patterns and rhythms that were evolved as part of the general reaction to 19th-century historicism. There are wide variations in the style according to where it appeared and the materials that were employed.

Art Nouveau has been held to have had its beginnings in 1894 or 1895. A more appropriate date would be 1884, the year the progressive group Les XX was founded in Belgium, and the term was used in the periodical that supported it, Art Moderne: ‘we are believers in Art Nouveau’. The origin of the name is usually attributed to ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 2 February 1914, in Washington (North Carolina), 1919, according to some sources; died 1977.

Sculptor, print artist, ceramicist, illustrator.

William E. Artis studied at the University of Syracuse, New York, New York State University and the Art Students League, New York. He was also a student of Augusta Savage at the Harlem Community Art Center, New York. Artis expressed his humanist ideals by depicting impassive faces in a purified style, combining African and classical sculpture....

Article

Alan Crawford

Informal movement in architecture and the decorative arts that championed the unity of the arts, the experience of the individual craftsman, and the qualities of materials and construction in the work itself.

The Arts and Crafts Movement developed in the second half of the 19th century and lasted well into the 20th, drawing its support from progressive artists, architects and designers, philanthropists, amateurs, and middle-class women seeking work in the home. They set up small workshops apart from the world of industry, revived old techniques, and revered the humble household objects of pre-industrial times. The movement was strongest in the industrializing countries of northern Europe and in the USA, and it can best be understood as an unfocused reaction against industrialization. Although quixotic in its anti-industrialism, it was not unique; indeed it was only one among several late 19th-century reform movements, such as the Garden City movement, vegetarianism, and folksong revivals, that set the Romantic values of nature and folk culture against the artificiality of modern life....

Article

Iraqi, 20th century, male.

Active in England since 1976.

Born 1939, in Baghdad.

Painter, potter, illustrator. Designs for tapes­tries.

Dhia Azzaoui initially studied archaeology. He then went on to study at Baghdad’s school of fine art. He has lived and worked in London since 1976...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 14 July 1821, in Montreuil-sur-Mer; died after 1901.

Painter (including porcelain), draughtsman, illustrator, engraver. Landscapes.

Initially a porcelain painter like Diaz and Troyon, the 20-year-old Alexandre de Bar came to the attention of Alexis de Fontenay who took him under his wing. By the following year, he had given up ceramics to devote himself exclusively to painting. He exhibited regularly from 1845 to 1870, chiefly landscapes. In 1856, he travelled to Egypt to document an expedition to chart the source of the Nile and remained there for a full year. De Bar occupies a major position among the illustrators of the Second Empire and was a major contributor to leading publications such as ...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 13 September 1822, in Paris; died 25 January 1907, in Paris.

Painter, illustrator. History painting, portraits, genre scenes. Murals.

Son of the porcelain painter and miniaturist Barrias, Félix Joseph Barrias studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris under L. Cogniet and exhibited regularly at the Paris Salon from ...

Article

German, 19th century, male.

Born 14 March 1814, in Erfurt; died 11 August 1889, in Berlin.

Painter, fresco artist, illustrator. Landscapes.

Bellermann began his studies at the art school in Weimar, learning porcelain painting under Johann Heinrich Meyer (1828). On 16 March 1833...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 15 April 1889, in Neosho (Missouri); died 1975, in Kansas City (Missouri).

Painter, lithographer, illustrator, ceramicist. Scenes with figures, genre scenes, local scenes. Murals.

American Regionalism.

Thomas Hart Benton gave up his job as a newspaper cartoonist in order to enroll in the Art Institute of Chicago, before pursuing his studies in Paris at the Académie Julian from 1908 to 1911. He was then in contact with some of the early 20th-century artists seeking radical renewal, in particular Stanton MacDonald-Wright, one of the active members of the Synchromism movement, which used the circle as the element capable of enlivening an abstract composition through the effects of colour dynamism. Benton himself said that it took him 10 years to break away from this abstract art, which later, after World War I, he openly opposed. But on his return to the USA in 1912, he was still in touch with Alfred Stieglitz, who was showing work by abstract artists and in 1916 was still showing Benton’s synchromist abstract paintings. Back in New York in 1913, he produced pottery, designed sets for Fox Studios, illustrated books and taught an evening class. He also taught at the New School for Social Research in Manhattan, where his personal choices had a significant influence on a great many young artists. Then, from 1926, he taught at the Art Students League, New York, where in 1929 one of his students was Jackson Pollock, who for a time painted Realist pictures, but quickly reacted against this genre, all the more vigorously for having to oppose Benton’s strong personality....

Article

Swiss, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 31 December 1758, in Zollikon, near Zurich; died 25 January 1823, in Feuerthalen.

Painter (gouache), illuminator, draughtsman, engraver. Landscapes.

In his youth, Johann Heinrich Bleuler learnt porcelain painting at the Kilchberg-Schooren works, but gave it up to devote his energies to an artistic career, studying under Heinrich Uster. He then worked for Matthäus Pfenninger in Zurich, producing topographical views of Switzerland. Around ...

Article

Swiss, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active also active in Germany.

Born 16 December 1874, in Zoug.

Painter, illustrator, sculptor.

Johann Bossard made his debut as a ceramicist before he enrolled at the Munich academy of arts and crafts, where he studied sculpture; he worked in the atelier of Wilhelm von Ruemann at the academy of fine arts in Munich. In ...

Article

Ruth Rosengarten

(António Teixeira Bastos Nunes)

(b Lisbon, Sept 18, 1899; d Lisbon, Aug 18, 1982).

Portuguese painter, printmaker and designer of tapestries and tile panels. Known primarily as a ‘painter of Lisbon’, he began his artistic career as an illustrator and cartoonist as well as writing a weekly satirical page (1928–50) in the newspaper O sempre fixe. He visited Paris in 1929, 1930–1 and again in 1937, when he was impressed by a retrospective exhibition of the work of van Gogh, whose influence is evident in Botelho’s scenes of urban squalor of the late 1930s. He had begun to depict calm, unpopulated views of Lisbon in the early 1930s, for example Side View of the Castle (1935; Lisbon, Mus. Cidade), and from the early 1940s concentrated almost exclusively on this theme. The compositions became increasingly crisp and planar and the piling up of volumes and compression of space increasingly stylized, especially after he began to paint from memory in 1949. The tonalities of Botelho’s paintings remained consistently pale, as in ...

Article

(b Leiden, Oct 19, 1877; d Zoeterwoude, Oct 23, 1933).

Dutch potter and sculptor. He trained as a drawing teacher but took a particular interest in bookbinding, decorative woodcuts and household pottery. From the example of the Arts and Crafts Movement he learnt the value of traditional techniques and craftsmanship. In 1898 he settled in Gouda in order to perfect his technical knowledge of pottery-making. Three years later he started his own ceramics firm in Leiderdorp. His ceramics are characterized by their intentionally plain shapes, combined with mostly geometric linear ornament and frequently with sculptural decoration applied in low relief. His work attracted international attention and gained awards at several exhibitions, including the Esposizione Internazionale d’Arte Decorativa in Turin (1902) and the Exposition Universelle et Internationale in Brussels (1910). Around 1907 Brouwer began to experiment with large-scale ceramic decoration. His terracotta ornaments and façade sculptures were greatly admired by contemporary architects, who secured him important commissions in this field, for example the ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 19 July 1883, in Paris.

Painter, engraver, draughtsman, illustrator, potter.

Georges Léon Bruyer did wood engravings and aquatints. Between 1907 and 1937 he exhibited at the Salon des Artistes Indépendants and the Salon d'Automne. Like many illustrators he treated a great variety of subjects. In addition to publishing his own engravings he illustrated a number of books, including ...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1876; died 1960.

Sculptor, illustrator, decorative artist, potter, glassmaker, watercolourist, draughtsman.

Cambellotti's work was shown in the exhibitions Roman Secession, 1913-1916, held in Rome in 1987, and From Glass to Diamond: Artistic Stained Glass in Rome 1912-1925 at the Exhibition Centre in Rome in ...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Active also active in France.

Born 1906, in Venice; died 1996.

Painter, draughtsman, illustrator, potter.

Bruno Capacci arrived in Florence with his family at the age of 10; he went on to study at the academy of fine arts in Florence. He travelled to the USA, and set up home in Paris twice: ...

Article

French, 20th century, female.

Born 30 September 1932, in Paris.

Painter, lithographer, illustrator, pastellist, watercolourist, potter. Figures, portraits, genre scenes, landscapes, urban landscapes, still-lifes. Murals, designs for tapestries, stained glass windows.

Nathalie Chabrier studied at the École des Arts Appliqués and the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. She married Roger Forissier. She has worked mostly in decorative arts, notably in stained glass windows, tapestry, ceramics and murals. She has received various prizes, including the state art prize in ...

Article

French, 20th century, female.

Born 1908, in Le Vésinet.

Painter, engraver, potter, designer, illustrator. Religious subjects.

Marianne Clouzot started out as a painter but turned to ceramics from around 1942, favouring religious subjects. She wrote several children's books and a produced a portfolio of 12 etchings entitled ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 5 July 1889, in Maisons-Laffitte; died 11 October 1963, in Milly-la-Forêt.

Painter, pastellist, potter, lithographer, draughtsman, illustrator, poster artist. Mythological subjects, genre scenes, portraits, landscapes. Murals, designs for tapestries, stage sets, designs for ceramics.

'Versatility' is perhaps the term that best sums up Jean Cocteau. Cocteau the poet: ...