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Christophe Spaenjers

Set of financial methods, instruments, and business models that are used in the Art market. Important developments since the 1960s include the spreading availability and use of art price information and price indexes (see Art index), the emergence of loans collateralized by artworks, repeated efforts to create art investment structures, and a strong growth in art market advisory services provided by wealth managers and new entrepreneurs (see also Investment).

The first major development has been the spread of art price information and art price indexes over the last half-century. After a few difficult decades, art price levels and public interest in the art market were going up again in the 1950s and 1960s. A number of books on the history of the art market and on art investment that were published around that time—Le Vie Etrange des Objets (1959) by Maurice Rheims, Art as an Investment...

Article

Chinese auction house established in 2005. Before the foundation of Beijing Poly International Auction Company (Beijing Poly Auction), China Guardian was the largest auction business in China. Since taking over China Guardian in 2010, Beijing Poly Auction became the foremost auctioneer and the world’s third largest auction company in terms of auction sales turnover, after Christie’s and Sotheby’s. The rise of Beijing Poly Auction, as well as other auction houses in mainland China, above their Western competitors can be explained by the high tax rates applicable to foreign companies as well as government regulations in the antiques trade applied to foreign companies. Beijing Poly Auction specialized in fields benefiting from the boom in the Chinese art market since the turn of the 21st century: Chinese traditional paintings and calligraphy, Chinese modern and contemporary paintings, antiques and ceramics, rare books and manuscripts, jewellery, and wine. According to the 2014 Global Chinese Art Auction Market Report conducted by the China Association of Auctioneers and Artnet, Beijing Poly International Auction’s turnover accounted for 14 per cent in global market share, by value, of Chinese art and antiques....

Article

[emerging art markets]

Since the 1980s art markets have developed rapidly outside of Europe and the USA. In the so-called BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) this development has been particularly dynamic. With aggregate sales estimated at €11.5 billion, China is the second largest market for art and antiques in the world after the USA (McAndrew 2014). Works of art made by modern and contemporary artists from all four countries regularly fetch more than $1 million at auction.

The rise of the BRICs has coincided with the global integration of what used to be local art markets: demand for and supply of particular artists or artistic movements may now be dispersed across the globe. The boom which global art markets have witnessed in the new millennium can be attributed partially to new buyers from countries like China and Russia developing an interest in art, both old and new. In describing the emergence of the BRICs, the focus in this article will be on modern and contemporary art, since that is where market development has been most significant, both qualitatively and quantitatively....

Article

Japanese, 18th century, male.

Activec.1780.

Born in Osaka; died c. 1802.

Illustrator.

Nichosai was a businessman and antique dealer. He was also an author and illustrator and is known for a collection of theatrical caricatures he published in 1780.

Article

Noémie Goldman and Kim Oosterlinck

Term for the return of lost or looted cultural objects to their country of origin, former owners, or their heirs. The loss of the object may happen in a variety of contexts (armed conflicts, war, colonialism, imperialism, or genocide), and the nature of the looted cultural objects may also vary, ranging from artworks, such as paintings and sculptures, to human remains, books, manuscripts, and religious artefacts. An essential part of the process of restitution is the seemingly unavoidable conflict around the transfer of the objects in question from the current to the former owners. Ownership disputes of this nature raise legal, ethical, and diplomatic issues. The heightened tensions in the process arise because the looting of cultural objects challenges, if not breaks down, relationships between peoples, territories, cultures, and heritages.

The history of plundering and art imperialism may be traced back to ancient times. Looting has been documented in many instances from the sack by the Romans of the Etruscan city of Veii in ...

Article

Joseph R. Givens

(b Abadan, May 15, 1943).

Iranian photographer, curator, and art dealer, active in the USA. Shafrazi introduced graffiti to the mainstream art market and contributed to the contemporary art boom of the 1980s. Raised in Abadan, a small port town that experienced an oil boom in the post-war years, Shafrazi was fascinated by Western popular culture and art. He moved to England in 1956 and three years later began formal art study at Hammersmith College of Art and Building, before continuing at the Royal College of Art, where he graduated in 1967. Following college, Shafrazi pursued a career as an artist while also teaching, first at the Manchester College of Art then at the School of Visual Arts in New York in 1969.

A newfound interest in political activism shifted his creative focus from art objects to art actions. His involvement with the latter culminated in an infamous incident that took place on 28 February 1974...

Article

Japanese, 19th century, male.

Active in Edo, now Tokyo.

Born 1777; died 1835.

Illustrator, print artist.

Toyokuni II (Kosotei) was the adopted son and diciple of Toyokuni. He worked in Edo as a ceramic dealer and executed female figures and book illustrations.

New York, 21 March 1989...