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Norwegian, 19th century, male.

Born 1811, in Bergen; died 1889.

Painter. Landscapes, mountainscapes, urban landscapes.

Condemned to 40 years of forced labour for forgery and deported to Norfolk Island in the Pacific in 1846, Knud Bull was transferred to Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania) the following year. Freed conditionally in ...

Article

Alessandro Conti

[Igino]

(b Siena, July 18, 1866; d Siena, Jan 23, 1946).

Italian forger, restorer and writer. He is best known for his autobiography, a broad panoramic portrait of life in provincial Italy at the end of the 19th century, which conveys something of the disquiet concerning the loss of Italy’s prestige. He also worked as a skilful forger and restorer at a time when the distinctions between the two activities were blurred. Much of his success as a forger was due to the fact that he imitated either the works of lesser painters (such as Sano di Pietro) or the undistinguished works of more famous artists, which could deceive even a connoisseur. A typical example is his copy of Cecco di Pietro’s Agnano polyptych (Pisa, Mus. N. S Matteo), created as a fraudulent substitution for the original (Rome, Pal. Venezia). Few of Joni’s fakes have stood the test of time, despite the fact that he was in contact with such critics and collectors as Francis Mason Perkins and Robert Langton Douglas. Research into collecting and the art market in late 19th-century America has identified Joni’s role as a restorer in such works as ...

Article

Kokan  

Japanese, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1747, in Edo (now Tokyo); died 1818, in Edo.

Painter, engraver.

Kokan, a pupil of Harunobu (1725?-1770), one of the great ukiyo-e masters, is infamous as one of the most brilliant forgers of his master’s work, openly admitting his wrongdoing in his autobiography ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(d 1879).

Austrian goldsmith, forger and thief. In the 1860s the Geistliche Schatzkammer in Vienna sent five items from its collection to Weininger’s workshop for restoration. Weininger made copies of each item and sold the originals. The best-known artefact was The Holy Thorn Reliquary of Jean, duc de Berry (1400–10; London, BM). The British Museum acquired the original in ...