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Article

John Milner

[Lisitsky, El’ ; Lisitsky, Lazar’ (Markovich )]

(b Pochinok, Smolensk province, Nov 23, 1890; d Moscow, Dec 30, 1941).

Russian draughtsman, architect, printmaker, painter, illustrator, designer, photographer, teacher, and theorist.

After attending school in Smolensk, he enrolled in 1909 at the Technische Hochschule, Darmstadt, to study architecture and engineering. He also travelled extensively in Europe, however, and he made a tour of Italy to study art and architecture. He frequently made drawings of the architectural monuments he encountered on his travels. These early graphic works were executed in a restrained, decorative style reminiscent of Russian Art Nouveau book illustration. His drawings of Vitebsk and Smolensk (1910; Eindhoven, Stedel. Van Abbemus.), for example, show a professional interest in recording specific architectural structures and motifs, but they are simultaneously decorative graphic works in their own right and highly suitable for publication. This innate awareness of the importance of controlling the design of the page was to remain a feature of Lissitzky’s work throughout radical stylistic transformations. He also recorded buildings in Ravenna, Venice, and elsewhere in Italy in ...

Article

American, 19th–20th century, male.

Born 1 January 1864, in Hoboken, New Jersey; died 13 July 1946, in New York City.

Photographer, writer, editor, gallery owner, collector. Cityscapes, landscapes, portraits.

Pictorialism, Modernism. The Linked Ring, Photo-Secession

Alfred Stieglitz was the eldest of six children and attended New York schools before moving to Germany in 1881. There Stieglitz studied photography with photo-chemist Hermann Vogel beginning in 1883. Returning to New York in 1890, Stieglitz joined the Society of Amateur Photographers and became increasingly involved with Pictorialism. Often characterized by a soft-focus, painterly quality, the Pictorialist aesthetic appears in his pictures from this period, such as ...