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Article

Andrzej Rottermund

(b Puławy, June 1756; d Florence, Feb 8, 1841).

Polish architect and writer, also active in Italy. He probably studied in Rome in the late 1770s and returned to Italy in 1785–6 under the aegis of Stanisław Kostka Potocki, a collector and amateur architect with whom he collaborated throughout his life. In 1786 Aigner and Potocki refronted the church of St Anna, Warsaw, using a giant composite order on high pedestals. The political turmoil of the 1790s disrupted Aigner’s career, but during his second phase of creativity (1797–1816) he won fame through his work on the great estate of the Czartoryski family at Puławy, on the Vistula west of Lublin, the most important centre of cultural life in Poland during the Enlightenment. Aigner had already erected the Marynka Palace there in 1790, a variation on the Petit Trianon at Versailles, France, and from 1798 he began to add ornamental buildings to go with the new Picturesque layout of the Puławy gardens: a Chinese pavilion, a Gothick house and a peripheral Temple of the Sibyl with a shallow dome. In ...

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Lucio Franchini

(b Castel Bolognese, Ravenna, 1756; d Bologna, March 11, 1841).

Italian architect, engineer and theorist. He graduated from the University of Bologna in engineering and architecture. From 1775 to 1796 he was in Rome, where his design for the new sacristy of St Peter’s (1775) was admired by Pius VI, although the commission was awarded to Carlo Marchionni. Antolini took part in the scheme to drain the Pontine Marshes (1776–7), but caught malaria and resigned his appointment. Devoting himself to the study and practice of architecture, he became involved in the artistic controversies of the day, including the debate on the use of the Doric order (see Piranesi, Giovanni Battista) and the changing attitudes towards the restoration of ancient monuments, his own position becoming progressively more conservative. He published his first important archaeological work on the Temple of Hercules at Cori in 1785 and began his studies on the Temple of Minerva at Assisi. During this period he also produced schemes for palaces, chapels and other buildings for noble foreign clients, including a design for the façade of the palace and court chapel of the Duke of Courland at Mitau (now Jelgava, Latvia). During the French intervention in Italy (...

Article

Jack Quinan

(b Hartland, CT, June 15, 1773; d Springfield, MA, July 26, 1845).

American architect and writer. Benjamin was one of the most influential architect–writers of the first half of the 19th century in the USA and was trained as a housewright in rural Connecticut between 1787 and 1794. Two of his earliest commissions, the carving of Ionic capitals (1794) for the Oliver Phelps House in Suffield, CT, and the construction of an elliptical staircase (1795) in Charles Bulfinch’s Connecticut State Capitol at Hartford, reveal an exceptional ability with architectural geometry that was to help to determine the direction of his career. Benjamin worked as a housewright in a succession of towns along the Connecticut River during the 1790s. In 1797, dissatisfied with the publications of William Pain, an English popularizer of the Neo-classical style of Robert Adam, Benjamin wrote The Country Builder’s Assistant, a modest handbook for carpenters that was the first such work by an American writer. In ...

Article

Charles R. Morscheck jr

(b Milan, 1791; d Milan, March 28, 1872).

Italian painter and art historian. He was trained as a painter in the Neo-classical school of Giuseppe Bossi, and by Vincenzo Camuccini and Pietro Benvenuti. He was the author of Notizie sulla vita…e degli Sforza, the first great history of Milanese art of the 14th to the 16th century, which largely established the canon of early Milanese artists. Calvi’s book was founded on his perceptive connoisseurship of painting and sculpture, and a good understanding of secondary literature. He made a thorough, intelligent use of primary sources including lapidary inscriptions, documents from the archives of Milan and Pavia, and also the then unpublished manuscript (compiled c. 1775) of Antonio Francesco Albuzzi. This work consisted of a collection of notes on the lives of Milanese artists, its author being the first secretary of the Accademia Braidense, where Giuseppe Bossi taught. Both Bossi and Calvi possessed copies of Albuzzi’s manuscript.

Notizie sulla vita e sulle opere dei principali architetti, scultori e pittori che fiorirono in Milano durante il governo dei Visconti e degli Sforza...

Article

[Nino]

(b Rome, Oct 15, 1826; d Pisa, Jan 31, 1903).

Italian painter and critic. He was taught by one of the leading Neo-classical painters in Rome, Vincenzo Camuccini, from 1843 to 1847. He also studied under Francesco Podesti and Francesco Coghetti at the Accademia di S Luca, Rome. These painters instilled in Costa the basic academic techniques, in particular that of painting a scene or figure in mezza macchia, or half-tones, which he was to apply to great effect in his landscape paintings. In 1848 Costa joined Giuseppe Garibaldi’s Legione Romane; after the fall of the Roman Republic in 1849 he took refuge from the papal police in the Campagna, outside Rome. Between 1849 and 1859 Costa lived and worked in this region and met several foreign artists, including the Swiss painter Emile François David (1824–91) and the English painter Charles Coleman (1807–74), who encouraged his interest in landscape painting; the latter introduced him to Frederic Leighton and George Heming Mason, and they became lifelong friends. Costa recalled these years and described his working practices in his memoirs, ...

Article

Werner Szambien

(b Paris, Sept 18, 1760; d Thiais, Dec 31, 1834).

French architect, teacher and writer. He was one of the most influential teachers of his time, and his radically rationalist approach, which emphasized priority of function and economy of means, was expressed in analytical writings that remained popular into the 20th century. He studied under Pierre Panseron (fl 1736) and from 1776 in the office of Etienne-Louis Boullée. He also took courses with Julien-David Le Roy at the Académie d’Architecture and participated in competitions under the guidance of Jean-Rodolphe Perronet. He twice came second in the Prix de Rome: in 1779 for a museum and in 1780 for a school. During the 1780s he worked as a draughtsman for Boullée and for the engraver Jean-François Janinet. In 1788 construction began in the Rue du Faubourg-Poissonnière, Paris, of his Maison Lathuille, a building with Néo-Grec decoration but with a layout characterized by its extreme simplicity. About 1790 he executed a series of drawings entitled ...

Article

Article

(b Pontoise, Sept 20, 1762; d Paris, Oct 10, 1853).

French architect and writer. With his friend and collaborator, Charles Percier(-Bassant), he was one of the principal French architects of the 19th century and the best exponent of late Neo-classicism, or the Empire style. Born during the reign of Louis XVI, he died when Napoleon III was on the throne. Continuously, from 1800 to 1851, he held positions of the highest responsibility, supervising the construction of public buildings. As the architect to the government, he worked for Napoleon (see Bonaparte family §(1)), in Paris and at the châteaux of Saint-Cloud, Fontainebleau and Compiègne; he built the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel (Louvre) and started the construction of the arcades in Rue de Rivoli. During the reigns of Louis XVIII and Charles X, he built the Chapelle Expiatoire, Rue d’Anjou, Paris, and supervised for a number of years the site of the Arc de Triomphe at the Etoile. For ...

Article

Thomas von Joest

[Jakob-Ignaz]

(b Cologne, Aug 20, 1792; d Paris, March 25, 1867).

French architect, architectural historian, urban planner and writer. He was the only son of a family of prosperous craftsmen from the Rhineland who acquired French nationality after Cologne was annexed by France in 1794. Hittorff was apprenticed as a mason and studied mathematics and drawing with an architectural career in prospect. As a French citizen he was then able to study in Paris, where he moved in 1810; he entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in 1811 and joined the atelier of Charles Percier. In the same year he assisted on the first important metal structure erected in France, the iron dome of the Halle au Blé (1808–13), under the direction of François-Joseph Bélanger. Following the return of the Rhineland provinces to Prussia in 1814, Hittorff was unable to continue with his French education and could not enter for the Prix de Rome. However, he and another young architect, ...

Article

Christopher Gilbert

(b Belgern, nr Leipzig, 1741; d c. 1806).

German cabinetmaker. By 1770 he was established as a master cabinetmaker in Leipzig. An important early patron was the art dealer Karl Christian Heinrich Rost (1742–98), who commissioned furniture closely based on French and English models. In 1788 Hoffman obtained a loan to extend his business in Leipzig and a subsidiary workshop at Eilenburg; his total workforce was 16 tradesmen. In 1789, after a dispute with the local guild of cabinetmakers, he published his first pattern book, Abbildungen der vornehmsten Tischlerarbeiten, welche verfertiget und zu haben sind bey Friedrich Gottlob Hoffmann, wohnhaft auf dem alten Neumarkt in Leipzig, an anthology of designs for household furniture, mostly inspired by the Louis XVI Neo-classical style. In 1795 he produced a second catalogue, Neues Verzeichnis und Muster-Charte des Meubles-Magazin, in which English design types are dominant. A number of pieces corresponding to plates in these two pattern books have been identified (e.g. sofa, ...

Article

Enrique Arias Anglés

In 

Article

N. A. Yevsina

(Aleksandrovich)

(b Nikol’skoye-Cherenchitsy estate, nr Torzhok, 1751; d Moscow, 2/Jan 3, 1804).

Russian architect, theorist, illustrator, poet, Musician and inventor. An enlightened dilettante and encyclopedist from a princely family, he studied architecture on his own and travelled in western Europe (1775, 1776–7), above all in France and Italy. On his return to Russia L’vov worked at the Foreign Ministry and acquired a reputation as an architect from the early 1780s. His earliest works—the Neva Gate (1780–87) of the Peter and Paul Fortress in St Petersburg, the single-domed cathedral of St Joseph (1780–98) in Mogilyov and the similar five-domed church (1785–96) at the monastery of SS Boris and Gleb in Torzhok—are characterized by their austere simplicity, spareness of form and pronounced monumentality. They became the model for many Russian Neo-classical churches of the late 18th century and the early 19th. L’vov’s works for St Petersburg include the Post Office (1782–9), unexecuted designs for the Cabinet on the Nevsky Prospect (...

Article

Oscar E. Vázquez, Enrique Arias Anglés, M. Dolores Jiménez-Blanco and Jesús Gutiérrez Burón

Spanish family of artists, teachers, critics and museum directors. Its members included some of the most important artists in 19th-century Spain. (1) José de Madrazo y Agudo was a Neo-classical painter who had trained under David in Paris and also in Rome. He remained faithful to the tenets of Neo-classicism in subject-matter and style and became director of both the Real Academia de S Fernando and the Museo del Prado in Madrid. Two of his sons, (2) Federico de Madrazo y Küntz and Luis de Madrazo y Küntz (b Madrid, 27 Feb 1825; d Madrid, 9 Feb 1897), were also painters. Federico became the foremost portrait painter in Spain as well as holding all the significant posts in the art establishment. José’s other sons were the art historian and critic (3) Pedro de Madrazo y Küntz, whose work includes studies of the Prado collection, and the architect Juan de Madrazo y Küntz (...

Article

Mario Bencivenni

(b Ancona, Dec 6, 1799; d Florence, March 11, 1872).

Italian architect and writer. He studied at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Rome before spending some time in Vicenza and in Venice, where he knew the art critic and theorist Conte Leopoldo Cicognara; he then moved to Florence in 1825. During his studies in the Veneto he completed his Neo-classical training begun in Rome and at the same time made a careful study of medieval architecture. These two stylistic influences prevailed from his earliest architectural projects (a parade ground for Vicenza and a theatre for Hamburg) and from his first executed works: the restoration of the Palazzo Ginori (1826) in the Piazza Santa Croce, Florence, the façade of S Francesco (1829) at Bibbiena, near Arezzo, and, at Ancona, the decoration of the Teatro delle Muse and the restoration of the dome and campanile of the cathedral (both 1835). Matas’s Neo-classicism was infused by an eclecticism that is particularly evident in his works for the ...

Article

(b Goyencourt, Nov 25, 1765; d Paris, Feb 13, 1840).

French designer, engraver and architect. He trained as an architect and in 1792 won the Grand Prix de Rome and travelled to Rome. He was responsible for thousands of engraved plates between 1800 and 1815, notably those for Charles Percier and Pierre-François-Léonard Fontaine’s Recueil de décorations intérieures (Paris, 1801), the seminal publication of the Empire style. Normand’s own designs in the Neo-classical style were published in his Décorations intérieures et extérieures (1803), on which he collaborated with the sculptor, Pierre-Nicolas Beauvallet; its 48 plates include designs for furniture, vases and ornaments.

Recueil varié de plans et de façades (Paris, 1815) Nouveau parallèle des ordres (Paris, 1819); Eng. trans. by A. Pugin (London, 1829); Ger. trans. by M. H. Jacobi and M. March, 2 vols (Potsdam, 1830–36) with M. Normand: Modèles d’orfèvrerie (Paris, 1822) Cours de dessin industriel (Paris, 1823, rev. 1841) Le Guide de l’ornemaniste (Paris, 1826, rev. 1847)...

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M. Dolores Jiménez-Blanco

In 

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John Martin Robinson

(b London, bapt Jan 8, 1745; d Charlotte Town, PEI, Canada, May 24, 1820).

English architect. He started as a bricklayer in Westminster, London, before progressing to architecture. He was among the more idiosyncratic of English Neo-classical architects and one of the pioneers in designing model farm buildings and cottages in the age of agricultural improvement. A fine group of farm buildings by him of c. 1790 survives at Allerton Park, N. Yorks. His plans show a preoccupation with geometrical pattern-making, and his principal executed work, Belle Isle (designed in 1774–5 for Thomas English), Lake Windermere, Cumbria, is a circular house with a segmental dome and portico, similar to a miniature Pantheon. It was widely influential, encouraging Frederick Hervey, 4th Earl of Bristol and Bishop of Derry, to build circular houses at Ballyscullion (begun 1787), Co. Londonderry, and Ickworth (begun 1796), Suffolk, as well as inspiring a full-scale copy in Switzerland, the Villa la Gordanne (1800) at Perroy, Lake Geneva. Like many of his English architect contemporaries, Plaw was interested in novel materials and forms of construction and was among those who experimented with pisé, a French form of mud walling....

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Jesús Gutiérrez Burón

In 

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Alessandro Rinaldi

(b Pistoia, Aug 18, 1758; d Florence, Oct 4, 1820).

Italian architect and writer. He was a pupil of Gasparo Maria Paoletti at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Florence, and he then lived in Rome for two years. On returning to Florence (1787) he was commissioned to prepare the decorations in Piazza S Maria Novella for the wedding of Maria Teresa of Tuscany and Anton of Saxony (later king; reg 1827–36). For Giuseppe Puccini he remodelled (1800) the 18th-century Villa Scornio, Pistoia, in ‘Doric Egyptian’ style. It was conceived as a piece of introductory architecture, a sort of triumphal arch or gateway: an atrium or gallery passes through the whole building, connecting the square in front with the garden behind. In 1809 he published a treatise on skiagraphy, in which he sought to adapt the taste for cast shadows, popularized by French Neo-classical drawing, to architectural drawings. His major work, the pantheon of illustrious men (from ...

Article

Rand Carter

(b Neuruppin, Mark Brandenburg, March 13, 1781; d Berlin, Oct 9, 1841).

German architect, painter and stage designer. He was the greatest architect in 19th-century Germany, and his most important surviving buildings in Berlin (see Berlin, §I, 3) and Potsdam (see Potsdam, §1) show his sense of German idealism and technical mastery. He became Geheimer Oberlandesbaudirektor of the Prussian state and influenced many architects in Germany and abroad.

Schinkel’s father, a Lutheran pastor, died after attempting to save victims of a fire in 1787 that destroyed most of Neuruppin, a town 27 km north-west of Berlin. Much of Schinkel’s boyhood was spent in a town under reconstruction, a model of royal benevolence and rational planning. In 1794 his mother and her six children moved to Berlin to a home for the widows of Lutheran pastors. At the 1797 Akademie der Künste exhibition in Berlin the 16-year-old Schinkel was so fascinated by a project for a monument to Frederick II of Prussia...