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Article

Shannen Hill

Apartheid, an Afrikaans word meaning ‘separateness’, was a system of racial segregation in South Africa that curtailed the economic, political, and social rights of black, coloured, and Indian people. Enforced through the legislation of the National Party, apartheid was the rule of the land between 1948 and 1994. Apartheid affected art and art-making in three primary areas: expressions of nationalism; limited access to education and commercial art markets for black, coloured, and Indian artists; and articulations of political resistance to this system of governance.

Although apartheid is equated with the 20th century, its notions of segregation predate this period. As descendants of Dutch settlers who first settled in southern Africa in 1651, Afrikaners were long at odds with people indigenous to this region and with British and German imperialists who sought to colonize it in the 19th century. In Afrikaner lore, the Great Trek (1835–52) represents the spirit of struggle to claim a land in the name of God. The pilgrimage was driven by a desire both to civilize a so-called heathen place through the introduction of Christianity and to establish a republic free of English intrusion in the heartland. This spirit is embodied by Pioneers (...

Article

Hasan-Uddin Khan

(b March 2, 1917).

English architect and writer, active in India . He graduated from the School of Architecture, Birmingham, and after serving as an anaesthetist in South-east Asia in World War II, he settled in India in 1945, first working as an architect/builder for a missionary organization in Pithorgarh, Uttar Pradesh, and from 1963 in Trivandrum, Kerala State. Inspired by the vernacular building of the area, he developed an architecture based only on local materials and stressing low-cost design. Other important influences were his Quaker religious beliefs, the philosophy of his friend Mahatma Gandhi, and his opposition to the architecture of Le Corbusier and the International style. Working as designer, builder and contractor, Baker has executed nearly 1000 works, mainly houses. Improvisation, for example using old building elements in new structures as in the Narayan House (1973), Trivandrum, is a characteristic of his approach. His house for T. N. Krishanan (1971...

Article

S. J. Vernoit

(Christopher Molesworth)

(b Belgaum, India, Dec 8, 1832; d Ealing, England, June 28, 1917).

English historian of Indian art and culture. After growing up in India, he was sent to Britain at the age of seven to be educated, first in Plymouth, then at the Dollar Academy, Dollar, after which he studied medicine at Edinburgh University. In 1854 he joined the medical staff of the East India Company in Bombay and later held professorships of anatomy and physiology, and of botany and materia medica at the Grand Medical College there. His interest in Indian art developed when he became curator of the Government Central Museum in Bombay. He returned to Britain in 1868 suffering from ill-health and found employment as assistant to John Forbes Watson in arranging exhibits from India for the annual international exhibition held in London from 1871 to 1874. In 1874 he became curator at the India Museum in London. When its collections were transferred to the South Kensington Museum (now the V&A) in ...

Article

S. J. Vernoit

(b 1872; d Srinagar, 1955).

English art historian, museum curator, educationalist, painter and collector. In 1899, after a short period of training as an archaeologist in Egypt, Brown went to India, where he served as curator of Lahore Museum and principal of the Mayo School of Art, Lahore. While working in these posts, he was also assistant director of the Delhi Exhibition of 1902–3 (see Delhi, §II), under George Watt. In 1909 he took up employment in Calcutta as principal of the Government School of Art and curator of the art section of the Indian Museum. In 1927 he retired from the Indian Educational Service to take up an appointment as secretary and curator of the Victoria Memorial Hall in Calcutta, where he remained until 1947. After this he lived on a houseboat on the Dal Lake in Srinagar, Kashmir.

Brown’s earliest publications included a contribution to the catalogue of the Delhi Exhibition and a descriptive guide to the Department of Industrial Art at Lahore Museum in ...

Article

S. J. Vernoit

(b Kirkmahoe, Dumfriesshire [now Dumfries & Galloway], Aug 14, 1832; d Edinburgh, Oct 3, 1916).

Scottish art historian, active in India. He was educated in Dumfries, Glasgow and Edinburgh, and he went to India in 1855 as professor of mathematics at Doveton College, Calcutta. In 1861 he became head of the Sir Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy Parsee Benevolent Institution, Bombay, and here, in his spare time, he began his architectural and archaeological studies. In the years 1868 to 1873 he was secretary of the Bombay Geographical Society, and in 1872 he founded the journal Indian Antiquary, which he edited until 1884. He was appointed Archaeological Surveyor and Reporter to Government for Western India in 1874, and Southern India was added to his brief in 1881. As a result, over a period of 30 years he wrote a variety of important reports. He was promoted to Director-General of the Archaeological Survey of India in 1886 and took up residence in Calcutta. In this position he restructured archaeological enquiry in India and initiated the ...

Article

Anand Krishna

(b ?Banaras [now Varanasi], 1909; d Bombay, 1974-12-17).

Indian art historian and museum director. During his upbringing he was exposed to many influences through his distinguished relatives and guardians: his family included Harish Chandra, known for his contribution to modern Hindu literature and as a social reformer and nationalist, and Rai Krishnadasa, who influenced Moti Chandra’s academic direction. After taking an MA degree in medieval Indian history at Banaras Hindu University, Chandra went in 1929 to the University of London, where Kenneth de Burgh Codrington supervised his PhD thesis on the relationship between Indian rāga melodic patterns and Rajasthani painting. On returning to India in 1934, Chandra attended archaeological excavations and began researching ancient Indian history by examining stone carvings and wall paintings. He also associated himself with the Bharat Kala Bhavan museum—founded by Rai Krishnadasa—at Banaras Hindu University, receiving the honorary position of Assistant Curator. In 1937 he was appointed Curator of the art section of the Prince of Wales Museum of Western India, Bombay, of which he later became Director....

Article

S. J. Vernoit

(b Murree, India, June 5, 1899; d Appledore, nr Ashford, England, Jan 1, 1986).

English museum curator and historian of Indian art. His childhood was spent in India and, after a period in England, he returned there during World War I. In 1925–6, he took up a position as professor of archaeology at the University of Cincinnati, OH. His interest in Indian art resulted in the publication in 1926 of Ancient India: From the Earliest Times to the Guptas, with Notes on the Architecture and Sculpture of the Medieval Period. In this work his aim was to bring together the aesthetic appreciation of Indian art expressed in the work of Ananda Kentish Coomaraswamy and Ernest Binfield Havell with the archaeological research of such writers as James Fergusson, Alexander Cunningham and James Burgess. Later, as Professor Emeritus of Indian Archaeology at the University of London, Codrington supervised the research of many future scholars of Indian art—among them Moti Chandra—and published a number of works on Indian art. In ...

Article

S. J. Vernoit

(b Paris, Aug 10, 1886; d Oct 2, 1969).

French art historian and archaeologist. He taught himself Sanskrit and Khmer while still at school and published his first article, on the early history of Cambodia, in 1904. He studied from 1911 at the Ecole Française d’Extrême-Orient, becoming a research fellow in Indo-Chinese philology in 1914. From 1917 he worked in Thailand for 13 years, as Chief Librarian of the Vajiranana National Library in Bangkok and as Secretary-General of the Royal Institute of Siam. He left Thailand for Hanoi before the revolution of 1932 to become Director of the Ecole Française d’Extrême-Orient, where he remained until his retirement in 1947. The same year he was appointed curator of the Musée d’Ennery in Paris. He was President of the Société Asiatique from 1964 and a member of the Institut de France. He also taught at the Ecole Nationale des Langues Orientales Vivantes in Paris from 1928 to 1929 and from 1947 to 1951...

Article

Tapati Guha-Thakurta

(b Colombo, Aug 22, 1877; d Needham, MA, Sept 9, 1947).

Anglo-Sinhalese writer and curator, active also in India and the USA. More than those of any other scholar of Indian art, culture and aesthetics, Coomaraswamy’s vision and views have dominated and moulded the current understanding of Indian art. He began his career at the start of the 20th century as a champion of an aesthetic revaluation of Indian art. His powerful defence of Indian art and Eastern aesthetics was motivated, on the one hand, by a cultural nationalism that resented the intrusion of British colonial rule in India and Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) and, on the other hand, by a utopian ideal of a medieval village civilization that rejected the materialism of the modern, industrial West. This ideal of an alternative socio-cultural order, discovered in traditional Sri Lanka and India, generated in time a more specific quest for an alternative aesthetic of Indian art. From the active mission of the cultural regeneration of Asia, Coomaraswamy retreated, with age, into the more aloof world of iconography, Eastern religions and metaphysics....

Article

E. Errington

(b London, Jan 23, 1814; d London, Nov 28, 1893).

British archaeologist, numismatist and engineer. He obtained an Indian cadetship in 1828 through the patronage of Sir Walter Scott and received his commission as Second Lieutenant, Bengal Engineers, in 1831. After training at Addiscombe and Chatham, he was sent to India in 1833. Friendship with James Prinsep encouraged an immediate interest in Indian antiquities and led to his excavation of the Sarnath stupa (1835–6). After three years with the Sappers at Calcutta, Delhi and Benares (Varanasi), he was appointed an aide-de-camp (1836–40) to Lord Auckland. A geographical mission (July–September 1839) to trace the sources of the Punjab rivers in Kashmir provided access to the antiquities of the region. While Executive Engineer to Muhammad ‛Ali Shah, the ruler of Avadh (1840–42), he discovered the Buddhist site of Sankasya (Sankisa).

As a field engineer, he saw action during the Bundelkund rebellion (1842), at Punniar (...

Article

M. C. Subhadradis Diskul

[Prince Disvarakumarn]

(b Bangkok, June 21, 1862; d Bangkok, Dec 1, 1943).

Thai statesman, historian and educational administrator. The son of King Mongkut (Rama IV, reg 1851–68), he attained the rank of Major-General in the Military Operations Department before becoming (1890) Minister of Public Instruction, then (1892–1915) Minister of the Interior under his half-brother Chulalongkorn (Rama V, reg 1868–1910) and, later, Vajiravudh (Rama VI, reg 1910–25). In this capacity Prince Damrong restructured Thailand’s provincial administration, reorganized the civil service and harnessed the kingdom’s resources (notably provincial taxation, forests and mines) to the interests of the state. He was Chairman (1915–32) of the Capital (now National) Library and was appointed Founder-Chairman of the Royal Academy in 1926. The National Museum, Bangkok, came into being under his guidance. A member of the Supreme Council of State from 1926 until 1932, when Thailand changed from an absolute to a constitutional monarchy, he moved to Penang in 1933 but returned to Bangkok in ...

Article

S. J. Vernoit

(b Lölling, July 27, 1878; d Vienna, July 8, 1961).

Austrian historian of Byzantine, Islamic and Indian art. He studied art history and archaeology at the universities of Vienna and Graz and in 1902 completed his doctorate at Graz under Josef Strzygowski and Wilhelm Gurlitt, a study of the paintings in a manuscript of Dioskurides’ De materia medica (Vienna, Österreich. Nbib., Cod. med. gr. 1) copied for the Byzantine princess Juliana Anicia before ad 512. After military service (1902–3), Diez pursued further research in Rome and Istanbul and worked in Vienna as a volunteer (1905–7) at the Österreichisches Museum für Kunst und Industrie. From 1908 to 1911 he worked in Berlin at the Kaiser-Friedrich Museum with Max Jacob Friedländer, Wilhelm Bode and Friedrich Sarre. He was then appointed lecturer at the University of Vienna. From 1912 to 1914 he made trips to Iran, India, Egypt and Anatolia, which led to articles on Islamic art and architecture and ...

Article

(b Dec 31, 1908; d Bangkok, Oct 17, 1955).

French archaeologist and art historian. He studied in Paris at the Sorbonne, the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, the Institut d’Ethnologie and the Ecole du Louvre, and also at the Institut Français d’Amsterdam and the Institut Français de Berlin. His teachers included Sylvain Lévi, Alfred Foucher, Charles Picard and Philippe Stern. At the age of 25 he wrote on Siamese art in the Catalogue for the Musée Guimet, and in 1936 he went as a member of the Ecole Française d’Extrême-Orient to Indochina, where he studied Khmer archaeology, inscriptions and history. The pre-Angkorian period and the transition to the Angkorian became his main interest. He conducted excavations at Phnom Kulên and wrote a number of articles, sometimes in collaboration with George Coedès, for the Bulletin of the Ecole Française. During 1936–7 he studied the Indo-Mon antiquities of Dvaravati at the National Museum, Bangkok, at Nagara Pathama and at other sites. In ...

Article

Tapati Guha-Thakurta

(b Ayr, Scotland, Jan 22, 1808; d London, Jan 9, 1886).

British art historian, active in India. His interest in the study of architecture was formed and developed in India, where he went at an early age to join a merchant firm with which his family had connections. He left this mercantile establishment to begin his own indigo factory in Bengal, and in the course of his career as an indigo merchant began a pioneering survey of Indian architecture. Travelling extensively across India between 1835 and 1842, armed with a draughtsman’s pad and a camera lucida, he acted as a ‘one-man architectural survey’ making drawings and taking notes and measurements. The labours of these years not only produced all his major writings on Indian architecture but also formulated his basic methods on the study of architecture in general.

Although firmly committed to European classical standards of artistic excellence, Fergusson, unlike most Western scholars of his time, did not impose these on Indian architecture. Rather, he applied to European and world architecture a set of analytical principles he had evolved through a direct, detailed study of Indian monuments. For instance, in all his studies, his reliance on pure architectural evidence for his conclusions grew out of his intimate survey of old Indian buildings. His strong criticism of all post-...

Article

(b Bar-sur-Aube, July 10, 1864; d Toulon, May 16, 1935).

French art historian and archaeologist. He became interested in the history of India and in Sanskrit literature while working at the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris, and this led to his first publication, Lapidaires indiens. In 1898 he became Director of the new Mission Archéologique of Indochina in Saigon, later known as the Ecole Française d’Extrême-Orient. In the following years he travelled throughout Indochina, organizing an inventory of historical monuments, establishing a library and a museum for the archaeological mission at Saigon, which was later transferred to Hanoi, and creating the Bulletin de l’Ecole Française d’Extrême-Orient in 1901. In 1904 he was appointed to a chair of the Collège de France and to the Ecole de Paris. He resumed directorship of the Ecole Française d’Extrême-Orient in 1930 for 17 years, and his name was given to the school’s archaeological museum in Hanoi. His publications included important work on the epigraphy of Indochina....

Article

(b Lorient, Nov 21, 1865; d Paris, Oct 30, 1952).

French art historian and archaeologist. He qualified with an arts degree in 1888 and began postgraduate Sanskrit and Indian studies in 1891 at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Sorbonne University. His primary interest was in Buddhist legend and tradition, and the relationship between India and the Western Classical world. In 1895, after obtaining his doctorate and a lectureship at the university, he spent two years on a scientific mission in India, visiting museums and sites, taking photographs and collecting manuscripts, coins and sculpture. The information he gathered on the art and sites of Gandhara during this survey was presented as his doctorat ès lettres thesis in 1905.

In 1898 he helped to establish a permanent archaeological mission, the Ecole Française d’Extrême Orient. While stationed in Saigon as the mission’s director (1904–7), he organized an archaeological expedition to Java. In May 1907 he was given charge of Indian language and literature at the Sorbonne. Later in that year he was appointed assistant director, and in ...

Article

[emerging art markets]

Since the 1980s art markets have developed rapidly outside of Europe and the USA. In the so-called BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) this development has been particularly dynamic. With aggregate sales estimated at €11.5 billion, China is the second largest market for art and antiques in the world after the USA (McAndrew 2014). Works of art made by modern and contemporary artists from all four countries regularly fetch more than $1 million at auction.

The rise of the BRICs has coincided with the global integration of what used to be local art markets: demand for and supply of particular artists or artistic movements may now be dispersed across the globe. The boom which global art markets have witnessed in the new millennium can be attributed partially to new buyers from countries like China and Russia developing an interest in art, both old and new. In describing the emergence of the BRICs, the focus in this article will be on modern and contemporary art, since that is where market development has been most significant, both qualitatively and quantitatively....

Article

S. J. Vernoit

(b Karlsruhe, July 17, 1898; d Heidelberg, July 8, 1976).

German art historian and museum director. He was educated at the Real-gymnasium in Munich and served in the military (1917–18). After World War I he took his doctorate at Munich University with a thesis, Kostüm und Mode an den indischen Fürstenhöfen der Grossmoghul Zeit. He then joined the State Museum of Ethnology in Berlin as assistant curator. In 1931 he went to Holland as assistant secretary of the Kern Institute of the University of Leiden and editor of the Annual Bibliography of Indian Archaeology. In 1936 he and his wife Annemarie moved to India, and in 1939 he was appointed director of the Baroda State Museum and Picture Gallery by Maharaja Sayajirao Gaekwar of Baroda (now Vadodara). Goetz expended much energy on the growth and presentation of the collection of the museum, which was a pioneering institution in India. In 1942 he founded the Bulletin of the Baroda State Museum and Picture Gallery...

Article

(b Feb 4, 1887; d Phnom Penh, June 17, 1945).

French art historian and museum curator. He was the Director of Arts and Curator of the National Museum of Phnom Penh in Cambodia and published several volumes on Khmer art, epigraphy and ethnography. He was killed by the invading Japanese forces in Phnom Penh in 1945. His son Bernard Philippe Groslier (1926–86) continued his work in Indo-China.

A l’ombre d’Angkor: Notes et impressions sur les temples inconnus de l’ancien Cambodge (Paris, 1916) Recherches sur les Cambodgiens d’après les textes et les monuments depuis les premiers siècles de notre ère (Paris, 1921) Arts et archéologie khmers: Revue des recherches sur les arts, les monuments et l’ethnographie du Cambodge, depuis les origines jusqu’à nos jours, 1 (Paris, c. 1922) Angkor (Paris, 1924, rev. 3/1933) La Sculpture khmère ancienne (Paris, 1925) Les Collections khmères du Musée Albert Sarraut à Phnom-Penh (Paris, 1931) Les Arts indigènes au Cambodge (Hanoi, 1938) R. Fazy...

Article

(b Grub, July 16, 1885; d Vienna, May 26, 1968).

Austrian art historian, archaeologist and anthropologist. In 1923 he pioneered South-east Asian anthropology with the chapter ‘Südostasien’ in Georg Buschan’s Illustrierte Völkerkunde. He had also become interested by this time in South-east Asian art history and archaeology. During World War II he sought refuge at the American Museum of Natural History, New York. He was co-founder of the East Indies Institute of America (later known as the South-east Asia Institute) and a member of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, the Royal Asiatic Society and the Royal Anthropological Institute, as well as the Ecole Française d’Extrême-Orient. His research embraced such themes as the conceptions of state and kingship in South-east Asia, and cultural contacts and cultural change, including prehistoric migration and contacts across trade routes. As an art historian Heine-Geldern provided valuable information on old Javanese bronzes, South-east Asian sword handles and the archaeology and art of Sumatra and Nias. His writings showed an ability to handle both grand themes and minutiae....